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("good") is absent from Qoheleth 9:9. The verb hxr

("see") stands alone, without any modifiers at all. Perhaps translators and commentators have been influenced by the parallel from Gilgamesh,108 but that will not explain the King James translators. More likely, this tradition

(hxr="enjoy") stems from Jerome who translates,

"Perfruere vita cum uxore."109

Have translators been led astray by Jerome's transla- tion of Qoheleth 9:9? If so, the "somber undertones"110 in this counsel begin to sound even before "all the days of your vain life" (9:9) is heard. Perhaps the counsel is merely, "Watch life with a woman whom you love." The admonition to enjoyment (9:7-8) then breaks off to become

I Sam. 6:19 and Qoh. 2:1. The I Sam. 6:9 citation is dubious. BDB, p. 908, suggests "gaze at" with joy or pleasure, and cites II Kgs. 10:16; Mic. 7:9; Jer. 29:32; Isa. 52:8; Job 20:17; 33:28; Psalms 43:9; 106:5; 128:5; Cant. 3:11; 6:11a; Qoh. 2:1, Only Jer. 29:32 appears to be an apt parallel; it reads, “. . . he shall not have any one living among this people, and he shall not see the good

(bvFb hxry-xl) i.e., "enjoy" ) that I will do to my people . . ." Neither KBL nor BDB offers Qoh. 9:9 as an instance of this meaning of hxr).

108

Cf. n. 100 above.

109

2:1 reads "fruere bonis" for bvFb hxr: 5:17

reads "fruatur laetitia suo” for hbvF tvxrl) vlmf-lkb; 6:6 reads—“et non fuerit perfruitus bonis” for hxr xl hbvFv. Otherwise in Qoheleth, the verb hxr is always translated by expressions relating to

sight, cognition and contemplation. Crenshaw, Old Testament Wisdom, p. 142. 110

249

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