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animal husbandry,54 alcohol abuse,55 and even friendship56 and scarcely mention the problem of enemies? Was their social world so different from the psalmists', or did they perceive it differently?

This investigation intends to demonstrate that the sages were in fact aware of the folk designated and described as enemies in the Psalms. The method to be used begins by noting all the designations of enemies within the individual laments, thanksgiving songs and songs of confidence in the Psalter.57 The enemy designations thus determined are then sought within the wisdom literature,58 and they form the

54 55 56 Prov. 27:23-27. Prov. 23:19-21, 29-35, Prov. 3:28-29; 6:1-5, 29; 11:9, 12; 13:20; 14:20, 21; 16:29; 17:17, 18; 18:19, 24; 19:4, 6, 7; 21:10; 22:11, 24-25; 24:28-29; 25:7c-10, 17, 18, 20; 26:18-19; 27:6, 10, 14, 17; 28:7; 29:3, 5; Job 2-11; 6:14, 15, 27; 12:4; 16:20, 21; 17:5; 19:13, 14, 21; 22:6; 31:9; 42:10; Qoh. 4:4, 9-12; Sir. 5:12; 6:17; 7:12; 9:14; 10:6; 12:9; 13:21; 15:5; 20:23; 25:18; 37:1-6; 41:18, 21.

57 0f course, individual judgments may differ on a given psalm, but the selections listed below represent a reason- able consensus; they form the basis of the enemy designa- tions and behaviors gleaned in preparing this study. Psalms 3; 4; 5; 6; 7; 9-10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 17; 18; 22; 23; 26; 27; 28; 30; 31; 32; 34; 35; 36; 7,61; 39; 40; 41; 42-43; 52; 53; 54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 61; E2; 63; 64; 69; 70; 71; 73; 86; 88; 102; 109; 119; 138; 139; 140; 141; 142; 143; cf. Kraus, Psalmen; Gunkel, Die Psalmen; Weiser, and Anderson at the passages listed.

58 See "Appendix I: Enemy Designations within the Wisdom Literature." Lists of enemy designations in the Psalms may be found in Keel, pp. 94-98; and L. Ruppert,

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