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three figures that are hated: a proud beggar, a rich liar, and an old adulterer.

Aside from hating some enemy figures, Sirach curses them. Once he utters a curse on the evil wife.

Any iniquity is insignificant compared to a wife's iniquity; may a sinner's lot befall her! Sirach 25:19

This might be taken as an imprecatory prayer rather than a curse in the strict sense, but in the absence of any mention

of God in the passage,137 it seems better to take it as a

curse. Once Sirach explicitly instructs, "Curse the whisperer and deceiver" (yiquron kai diglwsson katarasasqe)

because of his138 socially disruptive behavior (28:13).

Where earlier wisdom had overwhelmingly refused to meet hostility with hostility, Sirach's hostility toward his enemies invades even his childrearing considerations. If a man teaches (didaskw) his son properly he will "make his

enemies envious" (parazhlwsei ton exqron, 30:3 ). After his death, the son will remain as an "avenger" (ekdikon) against them, as well as one who can repay the kindness of

137 The closest previous mention of the Lord is in 25:11 which closes the preceding unit (25:7-11); the next mention of God is not until 26:3 which speaks of the "good wife" (26:1-4).

138 The singular verb apwlesen (28:13b) requires yiqruon kai diglwsson be taken as hendiadys.

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