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with two verses (27:30-28:1) in which the root ekdik- ("vengeance") appears three times. The next clause in Leviticus 19:18 LXX reads, "And you shall not be wrathful with the sons of your people (kai ou mhnieij toij uioij tou

laou sou ).” Sirach begins with the cognate noun mhnij

("wrath," 27:30) and closes with the verb mhnis^j ("be wrathful," 28:7). These connections are relatively straightforward.

The connections between Sirach 28:3 and 5 and Leviticus 19:18 are less certain because of the lack of any Hebrew text of Sirach at this point. The Hebrew verb in Leviticus 19:18 translated “bear a grudge” is rFn. It is rare and

may bear two different meanings: "to keep" or “to be

angry.”157 The five times the verb appears in the Hebrew Bible with the meaning "be angry" it is rendered by either

mhniw ("be angry"),158 or ecairw ("lift up, excite,

arouse"),159 or diamenw ("remain by, perservere").160 The verb appears with the meaning "keep" three times in the

157 The lexicographers do not agree on this verb. BDB, p. 643, lists one root rFn with two meanings: "keep, maintain (sc. wrath)" and "keep guard." KBL, p. 613, lists I rFn, "keep, guard," and II, rFn "be angry, have a grudge."

158

Lev. 19:18; Jer. 3;12; Psalm 103:9 (102:9).

159

Nah. 1:2.

160

Jer. 3:5.

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