and non-aggressive62 responses to one's enemy characteristic in wisdom literature? Or, are they rather isolated "old- world anticipation[s] of the spirit of Matthew 5:44"?63 Are they "unique" within the wisdom literature as in the Old Testament in general?64 What presuppositions allow or demand these, or other, responses to the enemy on the part of the wise? Chapter 4, "Wise Responses to the Enemy," will address these issues.
James Crenshaw has asked, "How can one determine what is distinctive of Israelite sages in the area of ethics?"65 His question is particularly significant for this investi- gation because it is placed in the midst of a discussion of the declaration of innocence in Job 31 where he observes, "Nothing in the catalog of vices falls into the category of distinctive wisdom behavior, "66 and these vices certainly include rejoicing over an enemy's calamity. Such a state- ment requires that the final chapter attempt to assess the
Prov. 16:7; 24:17-18; Job 31:29-30.
See n. 2 above.
64 H. Ringgren, "b ay Ax; ‘ayabh; b eyOx ‘oyehb; hbAy ex ‘ebhah," Theological Dictionary of the Old Testa-
ment, tool. I, ed. by G. Botterweck and H. Ringgren, trans. by Willis (rev. ed., Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1974), 215.
65 J. Crenshaw, Old Testament Wisdom: An Introduction (Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1981), p. 15.
Crenshaw, p. 15.