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to test his gentleness (epieikeian) and forbearance (anecikakian, v. 19). He is confident that he will be protected (episkoph, v. 20)

Following a long digression on the blessed estate of the righteous (3:1-9 ) , the punishment of the wicked (3:10- 4:6), and the blessed estate even of the righteous who die prematurely (4:7-9) which is illustrated by reference to Enoch (4:10-15), this righteous man reappears.

The righteous man who has died will condemn (katakrinei) the ungodly who are living, and youth that is quickly perfected will con- demn the prolonged old age of the unrighteous man. Wisdom of Solomon 4 : 16

The notice that the righteous man "condemns" the ungodly must not be taken to mean that he actively engages them in some legal contest. The text says nothing of any activity on his part. His mere appearance is a condemnation, just as his life had been a "reproof" (elegxon) to the

ungodly, and the sight of him had been a "burden" (baruj)

to them before his martyrdom (2:14-15). The text passes on immediately to speak of the incomprehension and scorn which the ungodly still have for the righteous man and then of God's judgment on them (4 :17-19 ) .

The next time this righteous man appears (5:1) he simply stands in the presence of his persecutors "with great confi- dence'" (en parrhsi% poll^). This time , however , they are

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