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and hailstones full of wrath will be hurled

as from a catapult; the water of the sea will rage against them, and rivers will relentlessly overwhelm them; a mighty wind will rise against them, and like a tempest it will winnow them away. Lawlessness will lay waste the whole earth, and evil doing will overturn the thrones of

rulers.

Wisdom of Solomon 5:17-23192

So ends the discussion of the contrasting fates of the righteous and the ungodly (1:16-5:23).

Summary This chapter has discerned a broad range of responses to enemies in the wisdom literature which extends from hostility to love. Between these two extremes have appeared responses to enemies which have been characterized as rejec- tion of enemy behavior patterns, avoidance and caution, "quietism" and gentleness, non-anxiety, piety, praise, lament, disputation and reconciliation. Some securing actions against enemies and their attacks have been noted, including gift-giving, fearing Yahweh, and heeding Wisdom.

The motivations for these responses have shown less variety. Indeed, the motives which appeared to stand behind the various wise responses to enemies form a remarkably coherent set of convictions. Predominant among these are the traditional beliefs in the self-destructive nature of

192

Cf. 16:24-25; 19:18-21.

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