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because they are Israelite. The reverse is, of course, equally true.

Thus far no attempt has been made to define wisdom. Terms such as "wisdom literature," "wisdom tradition," "wisdom," "wise" and "sages" have been used without explicit definition. This same phenomenon is often encountered in studies of wisdom for the problem of definition is still awaiting a satisfactory solution.75 Proposed definitions range anywhere from the convention which simply means to designate the five wisdom books of Proverbs, Job, Qoheleth, Sirach and the Wisdom of Solomon which are bound together by a "mysterious ingredient"76 to definitions in terms of a system of thought (either "secular," "religious" or both),77

75 J. Crenshaw, Old Testament Wisdom: An Introduction, pp. 16-19; cf. idem., "Method in Determining Wisdom Influ- ence on 'Historral Literature'"; and "Prolegomena," in Studies in Ancient Israelite Wisdom, ed. by J. Crenshaw (New York: KTAV, 1976), pp. 3-5; and B. Kovacs, Sociological-Structural Constraints upon Wisdom: The Spatial and Temporal Matrix of Proverbs 15:26-22:16, Vol. I (Ph. D. Dissertation, Vanderbilt University, 1978), 31-.104.

76 Crenshaw, Old Testament Wisdom: An Introduction, p. 17.

77 Cf., for example, W. Zimmerli, "Zur Struktur der altestamentlichen Weisheit," ZAW NS 10 (1933), 177-204; H. Schmid, Wesen und Geschichte der Weisheit: eine Untersuchung zur Altorientalischen und Israelitischen Weisheitliteratur (Berlin: Verlag Alfred Topelmann, 1966); G. von Rad, Old Testament Theology, Vol. I, trans. by D. Stalker (New-York: Harper and Row, 1962), pp. 418-459; idem., Wisdom in Israel (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1972); 1117—Gese, Lehre und Wirklichkeit in der Alten Weisheit: Studien zu den Spruchen Salomos und zu dem Buche Hiob

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