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Chapter 2

ENEMY DESIGNATIONS WITHIN WISDOM LITERATURE

The task of this chapter is to analyse the data compiled in Appendix I, "Enemy Designations within Wisdom Literature." All occurrences of enemy designations in the wisdom writings of Proverbs, Job, Qoheleth, Sirach and Wisdom of Solomon are listed there. The following analysis intends to delineate as many of the social locations of the folk branded with enemy designations as possible. In addition to social locations, attention will be directed to the literary contexts of these designations for the several writers-compilers reveal various perceptions of these folk through their formal placement of enemy designations.

One obvious task of analysis is organization. This discussion will follow the categories developed by Othmar Keel and Lothar Ruppert in their studies of enemies in the Psalms.1 Both scholars see two fundamental groups which

they designate as the "byvx" and "fwr-groups." The

first is comprised of virtual synonyms of byvx ("enemy") or terms which, although not synonymous, bespeak simple

1 0. Keel, Feinde und Gottesleugner: Studien zum Image der Widersacher in den Individualpsalmen (Stuttgart: Ieriag Katholisches Bibelwerk, 1965); L. Tuppert, Der leidende Gerechte und seine Feinde: Eine Wortfelduntersuchung (Wurzburg: Echter Verlag, 1973).

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