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hostility irrespective of moral or religious stance. The "fwr-group" is made up of synonyms of fwr ("wicked")

or terms focusing attention on some moral or religious stance which issues in enmity. Two other groups used by both these scholars are the "family and friendship group" whereby enemies are explicitly designated as either family or friends and the "animals group" which speaks of enemies with the metaphors or similes of animal figures. Ruppert adds a fifth category which he calls the "neutral group." This includes several words which are recognizable as enemy designations only by their appearance in contexts clearly treating of hostile figures. Otherwise, the members of this group may have nothing to do with enmity.2 Although these categories of enemy designations were developed in studies of the Psalms, they provide a relatively coherent structure for this examination of wisdom literature as well.

2 The problem of the enemies in the Psalter has a long history of study; it is now recognized that the enemies form an integral topic in certain forms of psalmody (cf. C. Westermann, "Struktur and Geschichte der Klage im Alten Testament," ZAW 66 [1954], 44-80). Hence, it is reasonable

to include such terms as Mdx, wyx and Mdx-ynb in

a study such as Ruppert's. In wisdom literature, however, there is no such recognition. Therefore, only such

"neutral" terms as, for example, rz and rw which may be more clearly related to enmity and which provide more pre- cision than would terms such as wyx have been included.


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