Three times Job is simply referring quite stereo- typically to his human enemies.106 In all of these places the hostile figure is nondescript, but it appears that the adversary of Job 6:23 could refer to a legal adversary; this possibility is raised by the references to offering a bribe (v. 22) and to ransoming Job (v. 23). The hostile figures of Job 27:7 and 31:29, on the other hand, are more probably not legal adversaries. In the case of the former this is so because the content of Job's wish is that the enemy-opponent come to be as the wicked-unrighteous
(fwrk // lvfk) not that they become the wicked-
unrighteous which would be the case in a legal setting. With the latter there is simply not enough material to warrant a judgment.
Although it is commonly said that God is Job's enemy,107 the evidence is somewhat more subtle. In actual fact, if the enemy designations found in the Psalms are taken as the best witness to enemy vocabulary, it is only at Job 16:9 that Job explicitly refers to God as his
106 107 6:23: 27:7; 31:29. G. von Rad, Wisdom in Israel (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1972), p. 217, which Crenshaw, p. 109, cites in agreement. Cf. Westermann, The Structure of the Book of Job, p. 45.