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adversary (rc).108 Thus, only a single time in the entire

book is God named as the enemy. In two passages Job radically re-orients the enemy vocabulary. He claims that God has made him, Job, an enemy.

Why do you hide your face and count me for your enemy? Job 13:24109 He has kindled his wrath against me and counted me as his adversary. Job 19:11

It is, of course, not surprising at all to find reference to enemies in the lament form which is the pre- dominant genre of all Job's speeches.110 Ordinarily a lament will contain questions about "why" or "how long" God intends to neglect, or cause, the supplicant's distress. Furthermore, a significant theme in the situation of dis- tress is often the enemies' attacks. In Job's laments, however, the attacks of the enemy111 are separated from the one who is made to be the enemy, the lamenter. This seman- tic contradiction between the perpetrator of the attacks

108 Even here, some would take this to refer to the human enemies who are the subject of vv. 10f.; Pope, p. 123; but cf. Gordis, pp. 176f. Cf. 33:10. Westermann, The Structure of the Book of Job, p. 31. Cf. 13:25, 27; 19:6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 22. 109 110 111

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