underprivileged.141 The examples of antithetic parallelism between the wicked (rich) and the poor (righteous) occur primarily in two places: Job's speech in chapter 24 and Elihu's speeches in chapters 34 and 36.142
In each of these cases the opposition of the wicked and the afflicted is the result of the forms which make up the, speeches. The Elihu speeches all make use of the humiliation-exaltation hymnic motif which is familiar from the psalm tradition of Israel.
He pours contempt upon princes and makes them walk in trackless wastes; but he raises up the needy out of affliction, and makes their families like flocks.143 Psalm 107:40-41
Job's speech in chapter 24 consists of quite a long description of the distress of humanity following his
141 Cf. the antonyms ynf in 24:4, 14; 34:28; 36:6, 15; Nvybx in 24:4, 14; ld in 34:19, 28; Mvty, in 24:3; hnmlx in 24:3; Mytm in 24:12; MyllH in 24:12; Mynyf-Hw in 22:29; Myrysx in 3:18; Hvk-yfygy in 3:17 ("victims," Gordis, pp. 28, 38).
142 Eliphaz's speech in 22:29 appears to have a note similar to Elihu's remarks if the RSV is followed, but it seems better to follow Gordis, pp. 242, 252, and translate MT as it stands: "When men are brought low you will say, 'Rise up,' and he who has been humbled will be saved." Cf. Pope, p. 164, who translates, "When they abase, you (i.e., Job) may order exaltation; and the lowly of man he will save." The verse belongs in the context of Eliphaz's
promise that if Job would repent (bvw, v. 23) then he
would be one of those righteous folk upon whose merit others could receive favor; Gordis, pp. 251f.; Pope, 168.
143 Cf. Psalms 33:10-17; 76:5, 9, 12; 113:5-9; 145:14, 19-20; 146:7-9; 147:6; and I Sam. 2:4-8.