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I have become an alien in their eyes. I call to my servant (ydbfl), but he gives

me no answer; I must beseech him with my mouth.

I am repulsive to my wife (ytwxl), loathsome to the sons of my own mother (ynFb ynbl)

Even young children (Mylyvf) despise me; when I rise they talk against me. All my intimate friends (ydvs ytm) abhor me,

and those whom I loved (ytbhx-hz)

have turned against me. Job 19:13-19

It is quite significant that designations from this particular group appear to refer to enemies only on the lips of Job. This motif is well-known from the laments of the Psalter.

It is not an enemy who taunts me-- then I could bear it; it is not an adversary who deals insolently with me-- then I could hide from him. But it is you, my equal, my companion, my familiar friend. We used to hold sweet converse together; within God's house we walked in fellowship, Psalm 55:13-15 156

This motif is one of the most fitting which the writer uses.

Job 19:13-19 expansively describes the alienation from his social milieu which Job experiences as a result of God's hostile actions toward him (19:6-12). Otherwise, these designations drawn from the friends and kinfolk group point to the three friends of the dialogue.157 These three

156 157 Cf. also vv. 21-22 and Psalms 31:11; 41:9. Job 6:14f. (cf. the explicit identification in v. 21); 12:4 (Gordis, p. 136); 16:20; 19:21.


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