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(satanan)180 are not found in contexts which also mention the exqroj ("enemy").

Several times the enemies are simply mentioned inci- dentally, but little information may be gleaned concerning the identity of the enemy. For example,

He who teaches his son will make his enemies envious, and will glory in him in the presence of friends. Sirach 30:3181

In cases like these the wholly expected antithesis between "friend" (filoj) and enemy is present,182 but little else

is forthcoming. The same problem obtains even in the cases that mention a person's becoming the "laughinstock of his enemies,"183 for it is difficult to decide how that could narrow the range of the enemy's identity. It is also true of the "adversary" (21:27) whom the "godless man" (asebhj)

curses; in what manner or place is this one an adversary?184

180

21:27.

181

Cf. 6:4; 18:31; 19:7; 25:7; 30:6; 42:11.

182

19:8; 30:3, 6.

183

6:4; 18:31; 42:11.

184

Satan (=NFW) may, of course, be the personal

name of the devil (cf. I Chr. 21:1), but here it seems more natural to translate simply "adversary" meaning someone's human opponent. Cf. J. Snaith, Ecclesiasticus (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 19741, pp. 109f., "It is unlikely that Ben Sira uses 'Satan' as a personal name in the sense of the head of cosmic evil powers. . . . Ben Sira, . . . shows no knowledge of any independent evil power

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