"strengthened godliness." In this case the lawless ones are probably to be identified with any or all of the idolatrous priests who ministered to other gods in Jerusalem, the male cult prostitutes, the priests in Bethel and Samaria and the other cultic functionaries whom Josiah purged.201 Such an historical identification is limited to this single notice.
Designations from the fwr-group appear three times
in prayers which are modeled after forms found in the Psalter: an individual lament (22:27-23:6), a community lament (33:1-17) and an individual song of thanksgiving (51:1-12). In each of these, as in the Psalms, enemies are
designated by terms drawn from the byvx- and fwr-
groups as well as the more neutral group. The most striking difference from the Psalms is found in the individual lament where the burden of the plea is for deliverance from one's own shortcomings which provide the occasion for the triumph of external enemies. The more dangerous enemies in this prayer are one's own mouth, lips and tongue (22:7), thoughts and mind (23:2), eyes (23:4), evil desire (23:5), and gluttony, lust and shameless soul (23:6). The other two passages present no different picture of enemies than would be expected in similar contexts in the Psalter.
II Kgs. 23:5, 7, 20; 11 Chr. 34:3-7.