Types of Evidence
No information will be collected or used (with respect to owners/taxpayers) that is not necessary and relevant for tax administration and other legally mandated or authorized purposes.
Information will be collected, to the greatest extent practicable, directly from the taxpayer to whom it relates.
3. Information about taxpayers collected from third parties will be verified, to the extent practicable, with the taxpayers before a determination of compliance is made using the information.
The Internal Revenue Code requires all taxpayers to keep adequate records to support the items on their tax returns. However, not all evidence need be “books and records.” The following discussion is an overview of different types of acceptable evidence of taxpayer compliance.
Physical documentation is generally regarded as providing proof or evidence. Writings made contemporaneously with the happening of an event generally reflect the actual facts and indicate what was in the minds of the parties to the event. If possible, original documentary evidence should be reviewed.
The records to be retained by the LIHC property owner are described in Treas. Reg. §1.42- 5(b). The records must be retained for at least 6 yeas after the due date (with extensions) for filing the federal income tax return for that year. The records for the first year of the credit period, however, must be retained for at least 6 years beyond the due date (with extensions) for filing the federal income tax return for the last year of the compliance period of the building.
Owners may use electronic storage systems instead of hardcopy (paper) books and records to retain the required records.7 However, the electronic storage system must satisfy the requirements of Rev. Proc. 97-22. In addition, the owner must satisfy any additional recordkeeping and record retention requirements of the monitoring procedure adopted by the state agency. For example, the housing agency may require the owner to maintain hardcopy books and records.
While documentary evidence has great value, it should not be relied upon to the exclusion of other facts. Facts can also be established by oral testimony. There will be times when greater weight should be given to oral testimony than to conflicting documentary evidence. The owner should not be considered noncompliant simply because documentary evidence is incomplete to establish precise compliance when there is some evidence to support compliance.
The “Cohan Rule,” as it is known, originated in the decision of Cohan v. Commissioner, 39 F.2d 540 (2d Cir. 1930). In Cohan, the court made an exception to the rule requiring taxpayers to substantiate their business expenses. George M. Cohan, the famous entertainer, was disallowed a deduction for travel and business expenses because he was unable to substantiate any of the expenses. The judge wrote that “absolute certainty in such
Rev. Rul. 2004-82, I.R.B. 2004-35, Q&A #11.
Revised October 2009