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advanced status and financial rewards without being forced to abandon for administrative responsibilities their areas of major competence.

Implications for Formal Education

21. The academic degree (or evidence of years of academic work completed) is recommended as the single best means for determining that the applicant has the background required for the position. If an ALA-recognized Master’s degree or state or provincial certification is unavailable, examinations may be valid and reliable tests of equivalent qualification.

22. In the selection of applicants for positions at any level, and for admission to programs of library and information studies, attention should be paid to personal aptitudes and qualifications in addition to academic ones. The nature of the position or specialty, and particularly the degree to which it entails working with others, with the public, or with special audiences or materials should be taken into account in the evaluation of a prospective student or employee. Importance should be placed on the education and employment of individuals with diverse ethnic backgrounds who are multilingual and, additionally, on those who possess a multicultural perspective. When language translation is required in individual job assignments, the proper educational background to be able to write and communicate in a given language is necessary.

23. As library services and technologies change and expand, as new audiences are reached, as new media and technologies take on greater importance in the communication process, and as new approaches to the handling of materials are introduced, the kinds of preparation required of those who will be employed in libraries will become more varied. Degrees in fields other than librarianship will be needed in the Specialist categories. For many Senior Librarian positions, an advanced degree in another subject field rather than an additional degree in librarianship, may be desirable. Previous experience need not always have been in libraries to have pertinence for appointment in a library.

24. Because the principles of librarianship are applied to the materials of information and knowledge broader than any single field, and because they are related to subject matter outside of librarianship itself, responsible education in these principles should be built upon a broad background in education which includes the humanities, the sciences, and the social sciences, rather than a narrowly specialized background.

25. Emphasis in the two-year Technical Assistant programs should be more on skills training than on general library concepts and procedures. In many cases it would be better from the standpoint of the student to pursue more broadly-based vocational courses which will teach technical skills applicable in a variety of job situations rather than those limited solely to the library setting. These programs should combine a strong general education component, library technical specialty courses, and courses related to the library technical specialty program.

26. Undergraduate instruction in library science other than training courses for Library Technical Assistants should be primarily a contribution to liberal education

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