10 / JANUARY 2005
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Polymer electronics are based on sol- uble polymers as a core-element, re- sulting in easier fabrication than traditional semiconductor foundry techniques. Polymer materials are well known to have insulating properties, e.g. PET-foils. More recently, it has been possible to synthesize polymer molecules, which have, according to their chemical structure, conducting
g. Polyaniline) or semiconducting
g. Polythiophene) properties. To-
gether with insulating polymers, elec- tronic devices can thus be realized from soluble polymers.
A typical polymer transistor contains 5 layers: On the substrate there is a first contact layer (with 2 contacts per tran- sistor: source and drain). These con- tacts are covered by the polymer semiconductor. The 4th layer is the polymer insulator, which separates the gate contact from the semiconductor. Current between source and drain will only flow when there is a certain volt- age applied to the gate-contact.
Polymer electronics can be fabricated under clean room conditions, just like ‘classical’electronics. However, Poly- IC’s goal is “to print electronics as fast and as cheap as today’s newspaper.”
The leading application for PolyIC is RFID, although the technology has potential to be used in various electron- ics applications being thin, flexible, robust and low-cost. PolyIC’s vision is “to have printed electronics every- where.”
PolyIC has presented a 600kHz organic circuit and working RFID Tags based on polymer organic semiconductors as prototypes. The tags are based on a ra- dio frequency of 125 kHz; however, the target for PolyIC is to reach the 13.56MHz standard.
The first target product is a simple 13.56MHz RFID tag, with a limited number of memory bits. Prototypes are scheduled for 2005 with the target date for RFID volume production 2006 for a simple customer dedicated product.
Wolfgang Mildner, Managing Direc- tor
Dirk Bockwinkel, Managing Director
Dr. Wolfgang Clemens, Head of Ap- plications
Dr. Walter Fix, Head of Chip Design
Paul-Gossen-Str. 100 91052 Erlangen, Germany Tel: +49 9131 6874-0 Fax: +49 9131 6874-111 www.polyic.com
Provigent was founded inAugust 2000 to develop “integrated silicon solutions for the broadband wireless industry.” In September 2004, Provigent secured $8 million in third round financing from new investor Sequoia Capital, along with existing investors Pitango Venture Capital, Magnum Communi- cations Fund,Ascend TechnologyVen- tures, Delta Ventures and Dr. Andrew Viterbi, co-founder of QUALCOMM. The company has raised $19M to date. The company has 36 employees, grow- ing to 45 in Q1.
Provigent products are designed for a variety of broadband wireless applica- tions – including point-to-point (PTP), point-to-multipoint (PMP) and Mesh topologies – covering the frequency band from 2GHz up to 60 GHz. For Point-to-Point application, Provigent offers the PVG 310 Terminal Modem. For Point-to-Multipoint and Mesh ap- plications, Provigent offers the PVG 410/420 Base Station and Terminal Modems/Node Modems.
The PVG310, Provigent’s flagship product, is a complete single chip mo-
dem that integrates all the physical-lay- er baseband functionality (modulation, demodulation and forward error cor- rection) for point-to-point broadband wireless transmission. Advanced fea- tures include an adaptive decision- feedback equalizer, I/Q imbalance correction, distortion compensation and configurable concatenated coding mechanisms, which improve perfor- mance and reduce overall system cost. Other features include maximum band- width of 56MHz; powerful error cor- rection (programmable Reed-Solomon block code, trellis or block convolu- tional code and interleaver) and IF or baseband sampling. Modulation schemes include QPSK, 16, 32, 64, 128 and 256 QAM.
All functions are implemented digital- ly, eliminating the need for external voltage controlled oscillators (VCOs) and loop filters. Modem parameters – including data rates, modulation schemes and bandwidth – are all soft- ware programmable, making the PVG310 the modem core of the IDU (indoor unit) or ODU (outdoor unit) for a broad variety of SDH, PDH and IP traffic systems.
Microwave radio energy travels in waves, transmitting in both horizontal and vertical directions. This physical phenomenon enables the transmission of RF waves on both polarizations at the same time. Co-channel dual-polar- ization (CCDP) transmission provides two parallel communication channels over the same link with orthogonal po- larizations, thus doubling the link ca- pacity. Separate and independent signals are transmitted over the same wireless channel using single antenna.
However, despite the orthogonality of the two signals, some interference be- tween the signals inevitably occurs, due to imperfect antenna isolation and channel degradation. The PVG310 supports net payloads up to 311Mbps
Copyright Pinestream Communications, Inc. 52 Pine Street, Weston, Massachusetts 02493 USA Tel 781.647.8800 Fax 781.647.8825 www.pinestream.com firstname.lastname@example.org