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SURVEY OF U.S. MINERAL AND METAL PROCESS - page 7 / 12

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.

..

from 0.3 to

>20.

Sulfides of Pb, Cd, Mn, and Cu are often present. Zinc blende also contains

small amounts of As, Sn, Bi, Co, Hg, In,

Tl,

Ga, Ge, Ag, and Au (Table 1).

Low (40%) zitx content in ore

) zinc content in cm

-

  • ---

    I

ELECTR~Y~-----

LEACHING (W/GRJN(IING)

SINTERING

If & content is low

99.995 % zl

Figure 3. Zinc mining operations and by-product recovery opportunities

Ore Smithsonite, Hemimorphite, Willemite, (Zn,Fe, Table 1. Zinc content of selected ores Zinc content (% by mass) 52.14 Zn 54.30 Zn 58.68 21% Zn

ZnO

1

(ZnCO,) Zn2SiO4*H20 Zn2SiO4

Franklinite,

Mn)O.(Fez, Mn,s)Oj

Tailings

After overburden, tailings are a second type of common mining waste. Most beneficiation processes generate tailings, which contain a mixture of impurities, trace metals, and residue of chemicals used in the beneficiation process. Tailings usually leave the mill as slurry

consisting of

40-70%

liquid mill effluent and

30-60%

solids. Most mine tailings are

impounded on-site.

Electrolvsis

liquor residues

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