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Municipal Guide To Clean Water: Conducting Sanitary Surveys to Improve Coastal Water Quality



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20 Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2009. How to Delineate a Watershed. http://www.nh.nrcs.usda.gov/ technical/WS_delineation.html

21 Maine Department of Environmental Protection. 1996. A Citizen’s Guide to Coastal Watershed Surveys. Augusta, ME: DEP.

22 Maine Department of Agriculture. 2007. Manual of Best Management Practices (BMP) for Maine Agriculture. Augusta, ME: Department of Agriculture Food & Rural Resources, Division of Animal Health & Industry.

23 New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission. 2003. Illicit Discharge Detection and Elimination Manual: A Handbook for Municipalities. Lowell, MA: NEIWPCC. US EPA. 2008. National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), Illicit Discharge Detection and Elimination. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency.


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Wade, T.J., et al. 2006. Rapidly measured indicators of recreation- al water quality are predictive of swimming-associated gastroin- testinal illness. Environmental Health Perspectives 114:24-28.

10 US EPA. 2001. Protocol for Developing Pathogen TMDLs. EPA- 841-R-00-002. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency.

24 Hartel, P.G., K. Rodgers, G.L. Moody, S.N.J. Hemmings, J.A. Fisher, and J.L. McDonald. 2008. Combining targeted sampling and fluorometry to identify human fecal contamination in a freshwater creek. Journal of Water Health 6:105-116. Hartel, P.G., J.L. McDonald, L.C. Gentit, S.N.J. Hemmings, K. Rodgers, K.A. Smith, C.N. Belcher, R.L. Kuntz, Y. Rivera- Torres, E. Otero, and E.C. Schröder. 2007. Improving fluorometry as a source tracking method to detect human fecal contamination. Estuaries and Coasts 30:551-561.

25 Adapted from FB Environmental, 2006.

26 Kensey, E. 2007. Interim Deliverable: Summary of Current Research and an Outline of Rationale for Methods Development and Validation Specific to the Effectiveness of Field Fluorometry for Source Tracking, Contract EP-W-06-017. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency.

11 Cabelli, V. 1983. Health Effects Criteria for Marine Recreational Waters. EPA-600/1-80-031. Triangle Park, NC: Health Effects Laboratory Research, Environmental Protection Agency.

27 Ammonia can be a good indicator of human sources due to higher concentration in sewage compared to groundwater or drinking water (see reference 17).

12 Pruss, A. 1998. Review of epidemiological studies on health effects from exposure to recreational water. International Journal of Water 27:1-9.

13 US EPA. 1986. Ambient Water Quality for Bacteria. Washington, DC: Office of Water Regulations and Standards, Environmental Protection Agency.

14 American Water Works Association. 1999. Waterborne Pathogens. Washington, DC: AWWA.

28 e.g., Stockton Infrared Thermographic Services, Inc., Randleman, NC, 800-248-7226.

29 US EPA. 2005. Microbial Source Tracking Guide Document. EPA-600-R-05-064. Cincinnati, OH: National Risk Management Research Laboratory.

30 Interlocal Stormwater Working Group. 2005. Guidelines and Standard Operating Procedures for Stormwater Phase II Communities in Maine, Volume 1. Portland, ME: Casco Bay Estuary Partnership.

15 Metcalf and Eddy, Inc. 1991. Wastewater Engineering reatment, Disposal and Reuse, Third Edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

16 Maine Department of Marine Resources. 2010. Standard Operating Procedures for the Division of Public Health Shellfish Growing Areas Classification Program. Augusta, ME: DMR.

17 Center for Watershed Protection and R. Pitt. 2004. Illicit Discharge Detection and Elimination: A Guidance Manual for Program Development and Technical Assessments. Ellicott City, MD: Center for Watershed Protection.

31 Boehm, A.B., D.B. Lluch-Cota, K.A. Davis, C.D. Winant, and S.G. Monismith. 2004. Covariation of coastal water temperature and microbial pollution at interannual to tidal periods. Geophyical Research Letters 31:1-5.

32 Crowther, J., D. Kay, and M. Wyer. 2001. Relationships between microbial water quality and environmental conditions in coastal recreational waters: the Fylde Coast, UK. Water Research 35:4029-4038.

18 Schueler, T.R., and R.A. Clayton. 2000. Microbes in urban watersheds: implications for watershed managers. Watershed Protection echniques 3:575-584.

19 US EPA. 2009. What is a Watershed? http://www.epa.gov/owow/watershed/whatis.html

33 Dwight, R.H., J.C. Semenza, D.B. Baker, and B.H. Olson. 2002. Association of urban runoff with coastal water quality in Orange County, California. Water Environment Research 74:82-90.

34 Mallin, M.A., K.E. Williams, E.C. Esham, and P.R. Lowe. 2000. Effect of human development on bacteriological water quality in coastal watersheds. Ecological Applications 10:1047-1056.

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