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35 Noble, R.T., S.B. Weisberg, M.K. Leecaster, C.D. McGee, J.H. Dorsey, P. Vainik, and V. Orozco-Borbon. 2003. Storm effects on regional beach water quality along the Southern California shoreline. Journal of Water and Health 1:23-31.

36 Boehm, A.B., and S.B. Weisberg. 2005. Tidal forcing of Enterococci at marine recreational beaches at fortnightly and semidiurnal frequencies. Environmental Science & echnology 39:5575-5583.

37 Shehane, S.D., V.J. Harwood, J.E. Whitlock, and J.B. Rose. 2005. The influence of rainfall on the incidence of microbial faecal indicators and the dominant sources of faecal pollution in a Florida river. Journal of Applied Microbiology 98:1127.

38 Grant, S.B., B.F. Sanders, A.B. Boehm, J.A. Redman, J.H. Kim,

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    D. Morse, A.K. Chu, M. Gouldin, C.D. McGee, N.A. Gardiner,

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Generation of Enterococci bacteria in a coastal saltwater marsh and its impact on surf zone water quality. Environmental Science & echnology 35:2407- 2416.

39 Coelho, M.P.P., M.E. Marques, and J.C. Roseiro. 1999. Dynamics of microbiological contamination at a marine recreational site. Marine Pollution Bulletin 38:1242-1246.

40 Slovinsky, P.A., and S.L. Dickson. 2007. Maine Healthy Beaches Program Oceanographic and Meteorological Study: Microbial Pollution Levels and Transport Pathways at the Kennebunk River and Gooch’s Beach. Augusta, ME: Maine Geological Survey.

41 Beversdorf, L.J., S.M. Bornstein-Forst, and S.L. McLellan. 2007. The potential for beach sand to serve as a reservoir for Escherichia coli and the physical influences on cell die-off. Journal of Applied Microbiology 102:1372-1381.

42 Clean Beaches Council. 2005. State of the Beach Report: Bacteria and Sand. Washington, DC: Clean Beaches Council. Whitman, R. 2008. Beach Sand Often More Contaminated than Water. Reston, VA: US Geological Survey. Surfrider Foundation, undated. Coastal A-Z: Bacteria in Sand. http://www.surfrider.org/a-z/bacteria_in_sand.php

43 Jones, S., S. Sumner, N. Landry, and J. Connor. 2007. Pollution Source Tracking at New Hampshire (USA) Ocean Beaches. Concord, NH: Department of Environmental Services.

44 Goodwin, K.D., L. Matragrano, D. Wanless, C.D. Sinigalliano, and M.J. LaGier. 2009. A preliminary investigation of fecal indicator bacteria, human pathogens and source tracking markers in beach water and sand. Environmental Research Journal 2:395-415.

45 Murray, K.S., L.E. Fisher, J. Therrien, B. George, and J. Gillespie. 2001. Assessment and use of indicator bacteria to determine sources of pollution to an urban river. Journal of Great Lakes Research 27:220-229.

46 University of Maine Cooperative Extension and Maine Sea Grant. 2003. Pet Waste and Water Quality. Orono, ME: Maine Sea Grant.

47 De Sieyes, N.R., K.M. Yamahara, B.A. Layton, E.H. Joyce, and A. Boehm. 2008. Submarine discharge of nutrient-enriched fresh groundwater at Stinson Beach, California is enhanced during neap tides. Limnology & Oceanography 53:1434-1445.

48 Algae can indicate the presence of nutrients; see Heufelder, G. 2001. Guide to Conducting Sanitary Surveys Near Contact Recreational Waters (Draft). Barnstable, MA: Barnstable County Department of Health and the Environment.


49 Lowman, M. 2006. Marine detective is on duty in search for sources of beach pollution. Herald Tribune (Sarasota, FL), September 10, 2006.

50 Valiela, I., J. Costa, K. Foreman, J.M. Teal, B. Howes, and D. Aubrey. 1990. Transport of groundwater-borne nutrients from watersheds and their effects on coastal waters. Biogeochemistry 10:177-197.

51 Kim, J.H., S.B. Grant, C.D. McGee, B.F. Sanders, and J.L. Largier. 2004. Locating sources of surf zone pollution: a mass budget analysis of fecal indicator bacteria at Huntington Beach, California. Environmental Science & echnology 38:2626-2636. Boehm, A.B., S.J. Turner, and C.D. Winant. 2002. Cross- shelf transport at Huntington Beach: implications for the fate of sewage discharged through an offshore ocean outfall. Environmental Science & echnology 36:1899-1906.

52 Noble, R.T., M.K. Leecaster, C.D. McGee, S.B. Weisberg, and K. Ritter. 2004. Comparison of bacterial indicator analysis methods in stormwater-affected coastal waters. Water Research 38:1183-1188.

53 US EPA. 2005. The EMPACT Beaches Project: Results from a study on microbiological monitoring in recreational waters. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency.

54 Maine Department of Environmental Protection. 2008. Issue Profile: Overboard Discharges (OBD). Augusta, ME: DEP. Maine Department of Environmental Protection. 2006. Discharge Grant Program Administrative Handbook for Municipalities, Quasi-Municipal Organizations, County Commissioners. Augusta, ME: DEP.

55 Subsurface Wastewater Program. 2009. Subsurface Wastewater Program Lists (including list of certified home inspectors). Augusta, ME: Maine Department of Health & Human Services. The definition of a Malfunction per the Maine Subsurface Wastewater Disposal Rules (144 CMR 241) is as follows: “Malfunctioning system: A system that is not operating or is not functioning properly based on the following indicators: ponding or outbreak of wastewater or septic tank effluent onto the surface of the ground; seepage of wastewater or septic tank effluent into parts of buildings below ground; back-up of wastewater into the building being served that is not caused by a physical blockage of the internal plumbing; or contamination of nearby water wells or waterbodies/courses.”

56 Casco Bay Estuary Partnership, undated. Septic Systems: How They Work and How to Keep Them Working. Portland, ME: CBEP.

57 Riordan, M.J. 2002. Septic System Checkup: The Rhode Island Handbook for Inspection. Providence, RI: Department of Environmental Management. InspectAPedia. 2009. Alternative Septic System Designs. http://www.inspect-ny.com/septic/septalts.htm

58 University of Maine Cooperative Extension. 2002. What to Do If Your Septic System Fails. Bulletin #7081. Orono, ME: UMCE. US EPA. 2005. A Homeowner’s Guide to Septic Systems. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency. National Small Flows Clearinghouse. 1995. Maintaining your septic system: a guide for homeowners. Pipeline 6:1-2.

59 Sanitary survey guidance adapted from John Glowa, Maine Department of Environmental Protection, 2006.

60 Frankenberger, J., undated. Safe Water for the Future: Land Use and Water Quality. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University.


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