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Municipal Guide To Clean Water: Conducting Sanitary Surveys to Improve Coastal Water Quality

61 Mallin, M.A., S.H. Ensign, M.R. McIver, G.C. Shank, and P.K. Fowler. 2001. Demographic, landscape, and meteorological factors controlling the microbial pollution of coastal waters. Hydrobiologia 460:185-193.

73 Slovinsky, P.A., and S.L. Dickson. 2007. Maine Healthy Beaches Program Oceanographic and Meteorological Study: Microbial Pollution Levels and Transport Pathways at Ogunquit Beach. Augusta, ME: Maine Geological Survey.

62 Elmir, S.M., M.E. Wright, A. Abdelzaher, H.M. Solo-Gabriele,

  • L.

    E. Fleming, G. Miller, M. Rybolowik, M.P. Shih, S.P. Pillai,

  • J.

    A. Cooper, and E.A. Quaye. 2007. Quantitative evaluation of

bacteria released by bathers in a marine water. Water Research 41:3-10.

63 For free statistical software, see The R Project for Statistical Computing, http://www.r-project.org/ and Free Download Manager, http://www.freedownloadmanager.org/downloads/ anova_software/.

64 Ambrosio, J., T. Lawrence, and L.C. Brown. A Basic Primer on Nonpoint Source Pollution and Impervious Surfaces. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Extension. New Hampshire Estuaries Project. 2007. The Impact of Impervious Surfaces on Water Resources. Dover, NH: University of New Hampshire.

65 Androscoggin Valley Council of Governments. Vegetative Buffers and How They Work. Auburn, ME: AVCOG. Connecticut River Joint Commission. 2000. River Banks and Buffers: Planting Riparian Buffers in the Connecticut River Watershed, # 8. Charlestown, NH: CRJC. Gussack, E., and F.S. Rossi. 2000. The Homeowner’s Lawn Care and Water Quality Almanac. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Cooperative Extension. Friends of Casco Bay. 2008. BayScaping: Because the Bay Begins at Our Front Door. South Portland, ME: FOCB.

74 Minton, G. 2002. Stormwater Treatment: Biological, Chemical & Engineering Principles. Seattle, WA: Resource Planning Associates. See also the following links: Maine Department of Environmental Protection Stormwater Program. Maine State Planning Office Land Use Program. The Stormwater Managers Resource Center. Center for Watershed Protection, Controlling Runoff and Discharges. Washington State Department of Ecology, Stormwater Treatment Technologies.

75 The calculation to determine vessels with MSDs is based on data developed by the Urban Harbors Institute with the exception of anomalous data in the under 16-foot range due to survey ambiguity. For the purposes of this application, ME DEP uses the following percentages and will assume that all vessels with heads are equipped with an MSD: 0% of vessels less than 16' have MSDs; 12% of vessels 16-25' have MSDs; 86% of vessels 26- 40' have MSDs; and 95% of vessels over 40’ have MSDs.

76 Arrowhead Water Quality Team. 2008. Protecting Our Waters: Shoreland Best Management Practices. Twin Cities, MN: University of Minnesota Extension.

77 Boyer, A., undated. Reducing Bacteria with Best Management Practices. Dover, DE: Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control.

66 Jamieson, R.C., R.J. Gordon, K.E. Sharpless, G.W. Stratton, and A. Madani. 2002. Movement and persistence of fecal bacteria in agricultural soils and subsurface drainage water: a review. Canadian Biosystems Engineering 44:1-9.

67 Burkholder, J., B. Libra, P. Weyer, S. Heathcote, D. Kolpin, P.S. Thorne, and M. Wichman. 2007. Impacts of waste from concentrated animal feeding operations on water quality. Environmental Health Perspectives 115:308-312. As of 2009, nine CAFOs (for poultry and dairy cows) were permitted in Maine.

68 Mishra, A., B.L. Benham, and S. Mostaghimi. 2008. Bacterial transport from agricultural lands fertilized with animal manure. Wate , Ai , & Soil Pollution 189:127-134.

69 See collected articles on manure pathogens from eXtension, http://www.extension.org/pages/Manure_Pathogen_Articles.

70 Water Quality Program. 2005. Animal Waste Management. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service. Spiehs, M., and S. Goyal. 2007. Best Management Practices for Pathogen Control in Manure Management Systems. Twin Cities, MN: University of Minnesota Extension.

71 Center for Watershed Protection. 2000. Microbes and urban watersheds: ways to kill ‘em, in The Practice of Watershed Protection: Techniques for Protecting our Nation’s Streams, Lakes, Rivers, and Estuaries. Elicott City, MD: CWP. See also the International Stormwater BMP Database, http://www.bmpdatabase.org/.

78 US EPA. 2006. Model Ordinances to Protect Local Resources. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency. Association of New Jersey Environmental Commissions. 2009. Water Resources: Environmental and Land Use Ordinances. Mendham, NJ: ANJEC.

79 US EPA. 1999. Stormwater Technology Fact Sheet: Vegetative Swales. Washington DC: Environmental Protection Agency.

80 In order to comply with Phase II stormwater regulations, MS4 communities in Maine are required by US EPA to effectively prohibit illicit discharges to the storm sewer system, except for discharges allowed under a NPDES permit, by municipal ordinance or other regulatory mechanisms. The ordinance must contain appropriate enforcement mechanisms (see reference 30).

81 Horsley Witten Group. 2007. LID Guidance Manual for Maine Communities: Approaches for implementation of Low Impact Development practices at the local level. Augusta, ME: Maine Coastal Program. See also the Low Impact Development Center, Inc., http://www.lowimpactdevelopment.org/.

82 For more information on water quality education and outreach activities, contact the University of Maine Cooperative Extension Water Quality Office, 1-800-287-0274, http://www.umext.maine.edu/waterquality/.

83 Ocean Arks International. 2005. Methods for Comparing Wastewater Treatment Options. St. Louis, MO: National Decentralized Water Resources Capacity Development Project.

72 Marsalek, J., and Q. Rochfort. 2004. Urban wet-weather flows: sources of fecal contamination impacting recreational waters and threatening drinking-water sources. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 67:1765-1777.

84 Maine Department of Environmental Protection. 2006. Brightwork: A Best Management Practices Manual for Maine’s Boatyards and Marinas. Augusta, ME: Bureau of Land and Water Quality.

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