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Criteria for Regular Use

Are there plans for follow-up projects?

Is there a difference in manager attitude toward performance management, from project start to currently?

Is there regular communication about KPI results?

Are the CSFs, KPIs and BSC incorporated in the regular management reporting?

Exhibit 1: Criteria for regular use

Classification scheme

The scientific and professional literature studied mentions many behavioral factors that are potentially important to successful implementation and regular use of a performance management system. Examples given are: “Managers accept the need for performance management” and “Managers accept the promoter”. These factors have been grouped and arranged in a classification scheme (Exhibit 2).

Exhibit 2: Classification scheme of behavioral factors

This classification scheme was developed by linking the factors of effective control as given by De Leeuw (1990)  with the control cycle of performance measurement as given by Van Tuijl et al. (1995). For effective control, the controlling system (the superior of a manager) and the controlled system (the manager) need a performance management system. Through the performance management system, the controlling system gets information about the performance of the controlled system and the controlled system obtains information about its own performance. The internal and external environments in which the controlling and controlled systems operate also influence the effectiveness of control. In the performance management system, the development method part describes the way in which CSFs, KPIs, and the BSC are developed. The content part gives the quality criteria that CSFs, KPIs, and the BSC have to meet in order to be relevant to both controlling and controlled system. The feedback part describes the way in which information about CSFs, KPIs, and the BSC is conveyed to both controlling and controlled system. Each part of the classification scheme can be divided into subparts. For each subpart, behavioral factors can be found in the literature, so that it can become clear how each part of the classification scheme can be influenced favorably.


To answer the research question, case study research was conducted at three Dutch organizations: a nonprofit organization, a profit company, and an organization in transition from nonprofit to profit. All organizations had, at the time of the


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