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research, extensive experience with CSFs and KPIs. The purpose of the case study research was to identify the behavioral factors that  are the most important to the implementation and regular use of the performance management system at those organizations. Generally, in a performance management system implementation project, three stages can be distinguished: (1) the starting stage (S), in which the organization decides to implement a performance management system; (2) the development stage (D), in which CSFs, KPIs, and the BSC are developed; and (3) the use stage (U), in which  the organization starts to use the performance management system (Kerklaan et al., 1994; Kaplan and Norton, 1996). In each stage, identification took place of those behavioral factors that were the most important to a positive end result of that stage and the overall project. In addition, the stage that was the most important to the overall success of the project was identified. In total, forty behavioral factors were researched (Exhibit 3).

Classification Scheme Part

Subpart

Behavioral Factor

Influence on Stage

Performance management

Development method

Managers accept the need for performance management.

S (1)

system – Development

Managers have an active role during the development stage of the performance management system project.

D (1)

Method

Managers agree on the starting time.

S (2)

Managers have been involved in decision making about the project starting time.

S (3)

Managers are informed about the status of the performance management system project.

D (2)

Managers are actively communicating about the performance management system project.

D (3)

Performance

Quality

Managers understand the meaning of KPIs.

D (4)

management

Managers are involved in defining KPIs.

D (5)

system – Content

Managers have insight into the relationship between KPIs and financial results.

U (1)

Registration

Managers do not get discouraged by the collection of performance data.

U (2)

Purpose

Managers have insight into the relationship between strategy and CSFs/KPIs.

D (6)

Managers have insight into the relationship between business processes and CSFs/KPIs.

D (7)

Targets

Managers are involved in setting KPI targets.

D (8)

Balance

Managers’ KPI sets are aligned with their responsibility areas.

D (9)

Managers have insight into the relationship between cause and effect.

U (3)

Performance

Feed forward

Managers are involved in forecasting.

U (4)

management

Managers trust good-quality forecasts.

U (5)

system –

Managers’ activities are supported by KPIs.

U (6)

Feedback

Managers’ frames of reference contain similar KPIs.

U (7)

Performance

Feedback

Managers are involved in making the CSF/KPI/BSC reporting layout.

D (10)

management

Managers understand the CSF/KPI/BSC reporting.

D (11)

system –

Managers trust the performance information.

U (8)

Feedback (ctd)

Managers are involved in making analyses.

U (9)

Managers trust good-quality analyses.

U (10)

Controlled system

Management level

Managers use the CSFs/KPIs/BSC that match their responsibility areas.

D (12)

Managers’ information processing capabilities are not exceeded by the number of CSFs/KPIs.

U (11)

4

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