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Classification Scheme Part


Behavioral Factor

Influence on Stage

Managers have enough time to work with their CSFs/KPIs/BSC.

U (12)

Management style

Managers have earlier (positive) experiences with performance management.

S (4)

Managers realize the importance of CSFs/KPIs/BSC to their performance.

U (13)

Managers do not experience CSFs/KPIs/BSC as threatening.

U (14)

Managers can use their CSFs/KPIs/BSC for managing their employees.

U (15)



Managers can influence the KPIs assigned to them.

D (13)


Managers have sole responsibility for a KPI.

U (16)


Managers accept the promoter.

D (14)

Managers see the promoter spends enough time on the performance management system implementation.

D (15)

Managers clearly see the promoter using the performance management system.

U (17)

Relationship with controlled system

Managers and their controlling systems have a mutual trust.

U (18)

Internal environment


Managers find the performance management system relevant due to regular evaluations.

U (19)

Managers use the performance management system regularly during the planning and control cycle.

U (20)

Managers agree on changes in the CSF/KPI set.

U (21)


Managers are stimulated to improve their performance.

U (22)


Managers work in a stable, relatively tranquil environment.

S (5)

Managers’ results on CSFs/KPIs/BSC are openly communicated.

U (23)

Managers’ use of the performance management system is stimulated by the reward structure.

U (24)

External environment

External environment

Managers find the performance management system relevant because only those stakeholders’ interests that are important to the organization’s success are incorporated.

D (16)

Managers find the performance management system relevant because it has a clear internal control purpose.

D (17)

Exhibit 3: Overview of the behavioral factors


The research question was investigated by applying pattern matching, which allows patterns to be discerned between the various scores of the cases. These patterns tell us which behavioral factors, theoretically predicted to be important, coincide with the criteria for regular use. Pattern matching is applied to identify patterns between the scores on the individual behavioral factors and the criteria for regular use, and between the end scores for the three stages and the scores for the criteria for regular use. The assumption in pattern matching is that the behavioral factors are independent. This is why the factors have not been weighed. For pattern matching, a complete match between the scores of all cases gives a complete coincidence, indicating that these behavioral factors seem to have a general similarity with a successful implementation and use of a performance management system. These behavioral factors can consequently be considered to be essential. A match between three or two scores gives a partial coincidence, which means that these behavioral factors have a partial similarity with the criteria for regular use. These behavioral factors may be important to the successful implementation and use of a performance management system. Finally, a match between one or none of the scores indicates there is no


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