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coincidence, which means that these behavioral factors may not be important to the successful implementation and use of a performance management system. Pattern matching was applied for individual behavioral factors and for individual stages.

Classification Scheme Part

Areas of Attention to

Behavioral Factors

Performance management system

Managers’ understanding

A good understanding by managers of the nature of performance management

D4.Managers understand the meaning of KPIs.

D7.Managers have insight into the relationships between business processes and CSFs/KPIs.

U7.Managers’ frames of reference contain similar KPIs.

U21.Managers agree on changes in the CSF/KPI set.

Controlled system

Managers’ attitude

A positive attitude of managers toward performance management, toward a performance management system and toward the project

S2.Managers agree on the starting time.

S4.Managers have earlier (positive) experiences with performance management.

U13.Managers realize the importance of CSFs/KPIs/ BSC to their performance.

U14.Managers do not experience CSFs/KPIs/BSC as threatening.

Controlling system

Performance management system alignment

A good match between managers’ responsibilities and the performance management system

D9.Managers’ KPI sets are aligned with their responsibility areas.

D13.Managers can influence the KPIs assigned to them.

U9.Managers are involved in making analyses.

U15.Managers can use their CSFs/KPIs/BSC for managing their employees.

Internal environment

Organizational culture

An organizational culture focused on using the performance management system to improve

U23.Managers’ results on CSFs/KPIs/BSC are openly communicated.

U22.Managers are stimulated to improve their performance.

U8.Managers trust the performance information.

U17.Managers clearly see the promoter using the performance management system.

External environment

Performance management system focus

A clear focus of the performance management system on internal management and control

D16.Managers find the performance management system relevant because it has a clear internal control purpose.

D17.Managers find the performance management system relevant because only those stakeholders’ interests that are important to the organization’s success are incorporated.

Exhibit 4: Overview of the important behavioral factors

The results of the pattern matching indicate that there are 18 individual behavioral factors that coincide with the final score for the criteria for regular use. The scores for the use stage coincide completely with the final scores for the criteria for regular use. In other words, it seems there is a relationship between a well-executed use stage and a good final score. The scores for the starting and development stages, on the other hand, coincide partially or not at all with the scores for the criteria for regular use. This tells us that there is no relationship between how well these stages have been executed and the final score. So, even a well executed starting and/or development stage is no guarantee for a good final score, that is, a regularly used performance management system. It is possible to group the 18 important behavioral factors together in categories in such a way that an overview appears of the areas an organization has to pay special attention to increase the chance of implementing a new performance management system that will be regularly used (Exhibit 4).

Discussion

The research results indicated that special attention should be paid to 18 specific behavioral factors. In addition, the use stage turned out to be the most important to the success of the performance management system. For the starting and development stages, such a clear relationship was not found. This does not mean that, during these stages, an organization should not pay attention to the behavioral factors that are important to these stages. The three stages are executed sequentially, which means that the first two stages must be executed properly before the use stage can be started. The fact that the use stage contributes most to the success of a performance management system may be explained by the fact that this stage is, in contrast to the starting and development stages, a continuous stage. The consequence of this is that

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