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first year, the Review also highlighted the apparent inability of policy-makers to exercise ‘policy memory’ and learn from the past.

Its second year of research included a focus on the underlying aims and values of education and training for 14 -19 year olds, a review of the Tomlinson Final Report and the 14 -19 White Paper, the institutional and organisational dimensions of 14 -19 reform, policy learning from historical and international comparison and a focus on 17+ participation and younger learners in the workplace. The Review suggested that government policy documents on 14 -19 education and training have largely failed to articulate underlying aims and argued that there needs to be a constant appraisal of the values which are embedded in educational language and practice and which shape learning experience. The Review also noted that despite nearly two decades of continuous reform, the behaviour of the education and training system, in terms of participation, progression and attainment rates, is still failing to meet the expectation of policymakers. It went on to argue that all learners, regardless of attainment in compulsory schooling, should be able to continue with general education beyond the age of 16 to provide them with the basis for lifelong learning and adult life. Moreover, raising participation rates requires more than the reform of qualifications: sustained attention needs to be given to increasing the incentives for young people to stay in education and reducing the incentives for them to enter the labour market early. A third area of findings concerned the organisation of 14-19 education and training. The review characterised current institutional arrangements as ‘strongly competitive and weakly collaborative’. It proposed the development of strongly collaborative 14-19 local learning systems to support the participation, learning and progression of all young people within any given local area.

The Annual Reports, papers produced by the Review, and summaries of the discussions which followed them, are published on the Review’s website (www.nuffield14-19review.org.uk). The Nuffield Review is supported by a research directorate from Oxford University Department of Education Studies, the Institute of Education, University of London, SKOPE at Warwick University and UCAS.


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