Teltzrow et al.:Multi-Channel Consumer Perceptions
may have occurred through the self-selection of online participants. However, the use of a rotating banner added randomness to the selection of participants: Only about every sixth visitor saw the banner on the retailer’s home page. Moreover, we explicitly asked participants to provide only honest answers.
The results of Jarvenpaa, Tractinsky and Vitale  suggest that perceived size and reputation may influence trust differently depending on the type of products offered, which has not been further considered in this study. The product sector of consumer electronics tends to be highly suitable for multi-channel retailing [Omwando 2002]. It could be that the observed effects are less significant for less Internet-suitable product portfolios. Levin, Levin and Heath  have found that consumers’ preferences for online and offline services differ for different products at different stages of the shopping experience. The analysis of different product portfolios and their impact on the path coefficients in a multi-channel context should be analyzed in further work. Moreover, it would be interesting to further research if the higher level of trust in multi-channel retailers may justify a higher pricing strategy as discussed by Tang and Xing .
Criticism can also be directed at the definition of measurement scales [Grabner-Kräuter and Kaluscha 2003]. We used scales that have only been successfully applied in studies of Internet-only retailing. The scales included relatively few items per construct due to the retailer’s request to keep our survey as short as possible. Though the results returned good values for Cronbach’s Alpha, scaling demands more attention in further studies. Also, it remains in doubt whether our findings can be adopted for English-speaking countries, as our questionnaire was completely in German and targeted German customers only.
The study analyzed cross-channel effects between Internet and physical stores. Future work should analyze the effect of an Internet presence on trust in physical stores. Moreover, the integration of further "media channels" (mail, television) and "institutional channels" (call center, sales force) would be an interesting aspect of further work.
S. Ackerman, L. Cranor and J. Reagle, "Privacy in E-Commerce: Examining User Scenarios and Privacy Preferences," Proceedings of the Proceedings of the 1st ACM E-Commerce Conference, 1-8, Denver, Co, 1999.
Ajzen, "The Theory of Planned Behavior," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Vol. 50, No. 179-211, 1991.
Belanger, J. S. Hiller and W. J. Smith, "Trustworthiness in Electronic Commerce: The Role of Privacy, Security, and Site Attributes," Journal of Strategic Information Systems, Vol. 11, No. 245-270, 2002.
Berendt, O. Günther and S. Spiekermann, "Privacy in E-Commerce: Stated Preferences Vs. Actual Behavior," Communication of the ACM, Vol. 48, No. 4:101-106, 2005.
L. Berry, "Relationship Marketing of Services - Growing Interest, Emerging Perspectives," Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 23, No. 3:236-245, 1995.
Bhattacherjee, "Individual Trust in Online Firms: Scale Development and Initial Trust," Journal of Management Information Systems, Vol. 19, No. 1:213-243, 2002.
M. Blair and L. A. Stout, "Trust, Trustworthiness and the Behavioural Foundations of Corporate Law," Working Paper Series, Georgetown University Law Center, 2000.
M. Byrne, "Structural Equation Modeling with Lisrel, Prelis, and Simplis: Basic Concepts, Applications, and Programming," Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ, 1998.
K. Chellappa, "Consumers’ Trust in Electronic Commerce Transactions: The Role of Perceived Privacy and Perceived Security," http://asura.usc.edu/~ram/rcf-papers/sec-priv.pdf, 2001.
Cheung and M. K. O. Lee, "Trust in Internet Shopping: A Proposed Model and Measurement Instrument," Proceedings of the 6th Americas Conference on Information Systems, 1:681-689, Long Beach, CA, 2000.
Cranor, J. Reagle and M. Ackerman, "Beyond Concern: Understanding Net Users' Attitudes About Online Privacy," AT&T Labs - Research, http://www.research.att.com/resources/trs/TRs/99/99.4/99.4.3/report.htm,
J. Cronbach, "Coefficient Alpha and the Internal Structure of Tests," Psychometrika, Vol. 16, No. 297-334, 1951.
J. Culnan and R. J. Bies, "Consumer Privacy: Balancing Economic and Justice Considerations," Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 59, No. 323-353, 2003.
De Ruyter, M. Wetzels and M. Kleijnen, "Customer Adoption of E-Services: An Experimental Study," International Journal of Service Industry Management, Vol. 12, No. 2:184-207, 2001.
M. Doney and J. P. Cannon, "An Examination of the Nature of Trust in Buyer-Seller Relationships," Journal of Marketing, Vol. 61, No. 2:35-51, 1997.
I. Doyle, "Ucla Internet Report," University of California, LA, http://ccp.ucla.edu/pdf/UCLA-Internet-Report- Year-Three.pdf, February 2003, 2003.