Teltzrow et al.:Multi-Channel Consumer Perceptions
< 1 year
1 – 3 years
3 – 5 years
> 5 years
Records of 266 respondents were eliminated from a total of 1314 due to missing data (205), duplicate e-mail addresses (41 entries) or text fields that belonged apparently to the same participant (20). 1048 complete answer sets are used for modeling and log-files were checked for duplicate IP-addresses/timestamps in order to rule out possible multiple entries from the same person.
30 - 50
Table 1: Sample demographics and Internet experience
purchase at e-shop
purchase at store
no previous visit / purchase
1-2 times 3-5 times >5 times no answer Total
243 101 388 16 1048
274 111 315 11 1048
168 26 20 16 1048
320 85 200 18 1048
The user demographics of our sample is predominantly male and between 30-50 years old. Thus, it reflects the gender gap that still predominates Internet usage in Europe [Hupprich and Fan 2004]. Most of the users in our sample are experienced in using the Internet (compare table 1). Moreover, participants were asked about their channel experience prior to their actual visit. For each of the four incidents "purchased at e-shop", "purchased at store", "visited e-shop" and "visited store", participants were asked to answer if and how often they had visited the e- shop or store and if and how often they had purchased in the e-shop or in-store. The answers are depicted in Table 2. Section 5.3 will further differentiate these groups
Table 2: Prior experiences with the retailer’s e-shop and stores
A total of 605 participants claimed to have purchased at least once. Since we did not state a time frame for this question, it must be noted that these purchases may have taken place well in the past, as the shop network was established in 1973. Thus, it is not surprising that participants had more experience purchasing from the physical store than at the e-shop (established in 1999), which was specified by 214 participants. Moreover, 200 claimed that they had purchased more than five times at a retail store. In contrast, the number of people who visited the store at least once was almost equal to the number of visitors who visited the e-shop at least once. Unfortunately, the data was gathered in such a way that cross tabulation, i.e. an analysis of conversion rates from previous visits to later purchases is not possible. However, these numbers hint at the importance of physical stores to the online audience in a multi-channel setting. 4.4 Factor Analysis and Structural Modeling
We use cross-validation and divided the sample of 1048 records into two sub-samples n1=n2=524 using simple random sampling. A confirmatory factor analysis (oblimin rotation) [Jennrich and Sampson 1966] is performed on sample 1. This analysis was intended to confirm the hypothesized scales in terms of the discovery of six factors that each make up the employed scales.
If a plausible factor structure could be identified, it would be desirable to quantify the effect of perceived size, reputation of stores, and privacy onto trust, willingness to buy, and risk perception. Factors are latent (not directly observable) variables. Linear structural modeling is used here as it allows the simultaneous mapping of relationships between several latent and non-observable variables within a single multi-equation model [Jöreskog and Sörbom 1979, 1996a].
The variables of the questionnaire have ordinal scales. Model specification and parameter estimation is based on SIMPLIS [Jöreskog and Sörbom 1996a] and LISREL 8.54 [Jöreskog and Sörbom 2003], and uses only sample 1