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2.0  Fuel and Feedstock Properties and Compositions

The fuels and feedstocks properties and compositions affect their fuel-cycle emissions.  This report accounts for the effect of fuel composition on processing requirements and efficiency, evaporative and fugitive emissions, and combustion emissions.  These fuel and feedstock properties and compositions are summarized in this section.  The relevant properties include vapor pressure, liquid density, vapor molecular weight, carbon content, and heating value.  Each fuel and feedstock is discussed in the following sections.  Table 2-1 summarizes the energy and carbon content of the various fuels discussed throughout this report.  A range of properties corresponds to most of the fuels and feedstocks in Table 2-1.  The values in the table are representative of average compositions.  Methanol, ethanol, MTBE, hydrogen, CH4, and CO are pure compounds with invariant compositions.  Feedstocks such as coal, crude oil, and biomass have a wide range in carbon content and heating value.  Not all of these fuels are evaluated in this report; however, they are components of the fuel cycle.  For coal and crude oil, the range in the ratio of carbon content to energy content is relatively small (Schmidt).

Table 2-1:  Energy and Carbon Content of Fuels

Carbon Content

Energy Content

Fuel

C

(wt %)

C

(lb/gal)

HHV

(Btu/lb)

HHV

(Btu/gal)

LHVb

(Btu/lb)

LHV

(Btu/gal)

Density

(lb/gal)

Diesel, alternate formulation

86.7

6.24

20,010

139,680

18,300

130,800

7.13

Low aromatics diesel

85.9

19,560

137,990

18,750

129,350

6.89

Reformulated dieselg

86.3

6.06

18,600

137,500

18,360

128,900

7.02

FTD diesel

86.0

5.53

19,900

128,500

18,480

118,800

6.43

Methanol

37.5

2.48

9,800

64,800

8,600

57,000

6.6

Residual oil

90.0

7.29

18,300

148,200

17,700

143,800

8.1

Crude oil

84.5

6.51

19,100

147,800

17,730

136,500

7.7

Coal

66.6

12,100

Natural Gasc

73.6

3.38d

22,500

103,000d

20,300

92,800d

4.59d

LPG from petroleum

82.0

3.44

21,570

90,600

19,770

83,200

4.20

LPG from natural gas

81.8

3.42

21,570

90,160

19,770

82,600

4.18

Hydrogen

0.0

0

61,100

32,400d

51,600

27,400d

0.53d

MTBEf

68.1

4.22

16,300

100,900

15,100

93,500

6.2

Conventional gasoline

84.6

5.08

20,800

124,600

19,200

115,400

6.0

Phase 2 RFG

82.8

4.97

20,300

122,000

18,800

113,000

6.0

CH4

75.0

3.15d

23,900

101,200e

21,500

91,100d

4.2e

CO

42.9

3.22d

4,300

32,400e

4,346

32,400d

7.5e

Landfill gas

35.6

2.62d

6,570

48,300

5,900

43,500

7.4

Biomass, dry

52

8,700

8,200

Carbon

100

15.3

14,087

215,000

14,087

215,000

15.3

aHHV = Higher heating value.

bLHV = Lower heating value.

cNatural gas distributed in California.

dPer 100 scf.

8

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