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Table of Contents

1.0  Introduction1

1.1 Background1

1.2  Project Objectives3

1.3  Project Approach3

1.4  Report Scope4

1.5  Report Organization7

2.0  Fuel and Feedstock Properties and Compositions8

2.1  Fuel Composition and Properties9

2.1.1  Diesel9

2.1.2  LPG10

2.1.3  Synthetic Diesel10

2.1.4  M10011

2.2  Feedstocks12

2.2.1  Crude Oil12

2.2.2  Natural Gas12

2.2.3  Landfill Gas and Digester Gas13

2.2.4  Biomass14

2.3  Electric and Steam Energy14

3.0  Definition of Fuel Cycles16

3.1  Scenarios16

3.2  Information Organization17

3.2.1  Fuel Production Phases17

3.2.2  Geographic Distribution17

3.3Marginal Emissions18

3.4  Petroleum Fuels20

3.4.1  Crude Oil Extraction20

3.4.2  Crude Oil Transport21

3.4.3 Oil Refining22

3.4.4  Diesel Storage and Distribution23

3.4.5  LPG Storage and Distribution24

3.5  LPG from Natural Gas24

3.6  Fuels from Remote Natural Gas25

3.6.1  Remote Natural Gas Production and Transportation26

3.6.2  Synthetic Diesel Fuel Production27

3.6.3  Methanol Production from Natural Gas28

3.7  Methanol from Biomass28

3.7.1  Flared LFG30

3.7.2  Electric Power from LFG30

4.0  Emissions from Fuel Production and Distribution Processes32

4.1  Fuel Extraction, Transportation, and Processing Equipment33

4.1.1  Engine Emissions33

4.1.2  Biomass Collection Equipment37

4.1.3  Truck Emissions39

4.1.4  Marine Vessel Emissions40

iii

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