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and Fanick 1988), the energy consumption to energy produced (energy rate) for gas turbines is estimated to be 11,000 Btu/bhp-hr.  However, the range of energy rates for gas turbine prime movers can vary from 10,000 to 13,000 Btu/bhp-hr.

The current NOx emission estimate for gas turbines located in the SoCAB is based on SCAQMD Rule 1134 (Emissions of Oxides of Nitrogen from Stationary Gas Turbines) and an estimate of the types of gas turbines in the region. Because the NOx limit set forth in Rule 1134 varies according to control technology and rated power output, the NOx emission factor is an average emission factor for several types of gas turbines with varying power output and control technologies.  The future NOx emission factor for gas turbines in the SoCAB is based on the emissions from the best available control technologies for gas turbines.

The current NOx emission factor assigned to gas turbines located outside the SoCAB (CA and the U.S.) is based on a gas turbine prime mover population profile and emissions data for those gas turbines.  Assuming a greater use of NOx controls, the future NOx emission factor assigned to CA and the U.S. will be lower than the current NOx emission factor.

Current CO and HC emissions for all turbines in the United States are based on a population profile of the gas turbine prime movers (Huey 1993) and emissions data (Urban 1980 and Fanick 1988) for uncontrolled gas turbines.  By assuming a greater use of NOx control technologies in the future, CO and HC emissions for all future turbines should increase slightly.  For very lean operation, CO and HC emissions increase as NOx emission decrease.  The emissions data also show (and emission factors represent) that methane emissions makes up over 90 percent of the THC emissions from a gas turbine.

Table 4-3 summarizes the emission and performance characteristics of natural gas reciprocating engines used for natural gas transmission, prime movers.  Table 4-4 estimates current and future emission rates for engines operating in the SoCAB, California, and the United States.  Engines outside of North America are assumed to emit at the 1990 U.S. level.

Table 4-3:  Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine Emissions

Engine Location

SoCAB

CA, U.S.

Year

1990

2010

1990

2010

Energy rate (Btu/bhp-hr)

8,000

8,000

8,000

8,000

Emissions (g/bhp-hr)

 NOx

2

0.44

6

2

 CO

2.65

3

2.65

3

 CO2

463

463

463

463

 CH4

4.42

5

4.42

5

 NMOG

0.45

0.5

0.45

0.5

Data Source

Huey

EEb

Huey

EE

a SCAQMD rule 1110.2

36

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