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Table 4-8:  Tank Truck Load for Local Distribution

Fuel

Truckload

(gal)

Fuel Density

(lb/gal)

Fuel Weight

(lb)

Truckload Energy

(106 Btu LHV)

Diesel

7,080

7.2

51,000

6,550

LPG

10,000

4.2

42,000

3,470

LPG

3,000

4.2

12,600

1,040

FTD

8,000

6.4

51,400

6,110

M100

7,800

6.6

51,500

2,940

Table 4-9:  Tank Truck and Pipeline Distance for Fuel Distribution

Fuel

Application

One-Way Distance

(mi)

Location

Diesel

Local delivery

25

SoCAB

M100 Natural gas

Local delivery

25

SoCAB

M100 LFG

Local delivery

25

SoCAB

M100 Biomass

Local delivery

25

SoCAB

LPG

Local delivery

25

SoCAB

LPG

Transport to distribution

25

SoCAB

4.1.4  Marine Vessel Emissions

Crude oil and finished fuels are shipped in tanker ships.  Tankers are powered by steam turbines as well as low speed diesels.  The most prominent propulsion system for ocean going tankers is a two-stroke diesel (Burghardt).

Table 4-10 shows emissions from typical marine diesel propulsion engines.  The NOx emissions are comparable to or slightly higher than those from uncontrolled truck engines.  Fuel consumption in g/bhp-hr is quite high.  One reason for the higher fuel consumption is the higher calorific value of the heavy fuel oil used in marine diesels combined with combustion advantages of low speed operation and higher compression ratios.  Fuel consumption of marine diesels has dropped from 140 down to 120 g/bhp-hr over the past two decades (compared to 215 g/bhp-hr for a diesel engine on the EPA transient cycle).  NOx levels depend on engine load over the ships operating profile.  Emission factors that take into account a ship’s operating profile and are expressed in g/kg fuel shown in Table 4-11.

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