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Tankers capacity is measured in dead weight tons (DWT) which includes the total carrying capacity of the ship.  The load efficiency indicates what fraction of the total cargo capacity is actually carried.  Fuel consumption decreases with larger tanker size.  Tanker carrying load is measured in ton-miles.  For marine applications distance is measured in nautical miles (2000 yards) and speed is measured in knots or nautical miles per hour.  For this analysis, crude oil, FTD, and methanol are shipped in

Table 4-10:  Emissions from Marine Diesel Engines

Emission Source

Two-Stroke

Diesel, Bunker Fuel

Four-Stroke

Diesel, Bunker Fuel

Energy rate (Btu/bhp-hr)

BSFC (g/bhp-hr)

5890

120 to 140

6086

120 to 140

Emissions (g/bhp-hr)

 NOx

 CO

 CO2

 CH4

 NMOG

13.4

0.15

448

0.6

10.4

0.75

463

0.2

Source:  Arthur D. Little

Table 4-11:  Emissions and Use Factors for Tanker Ship Operations

Emission Source

150,000 DWT tanker

1990 Diesel Motor

At sea use factors

Fuel Consumption (kg/ton-mi)

Load efficiency

Fuel

Energy Content (Btu/kg)

0.0018

0.95

Bunker fuel

40,350

At sea emissions (g/kg fuel)

 NOx

 CO

 CO2

 CH4

 NMOG

70

1

3,300

4

Sources:  Melhus, Bremnes

Emission Source

Tug boats and ships

In port use factors

 Port transit time (h)

 Hotelling, pumping (h)

 Tugboat operation (h)

 Fuel use (kg/visit)

     (kg/DWT)

 Fuel

 Energy content (Btu/kg)  

2

30

8

7,716

0.051

diesel

42,560

In port and tugboat emission  factors (g/kg fuel)

 NOx

37

42

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