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by catalyzing CO and CO2 with H2.  Crude methanol produced by the reactor is then refined into chemical grade methanol.  

Steam reforming of natural gas yields synthesis gas for methanol production through the following chemical reaction:

CH4 + H2O CO + 3H2

The products that are formed by the gasification of coal or biomass (CO, CO2, H2, H2O and CH4) can also be processed into suitable feedstock for methanol synthesis.  Likewise, CO2 and H2 can be the feedstock for methanol production.

Methanol that is produced by catalyzing CO and CO2 with H2 is formed through the following reactions:

CO2 + 3H2 CH3OH + H2O

CO + 2H2 CH3OH

Process energy requirements for methanol production from natural gas shown in Table 4-19.

Table 4-19:  Methanol Processing From Natural Gas

Steam Reforming

Combined Partial

Process

Current

Advanced

Oxidation

Fuel Processing

Electricity use (kWh/gal)

-0.04

-0.09

0.25

Energy ratio (%)

66.8

68.3

72.3

NG feed (Btu/gal)

 (100 scf/gal)

96,970

0.941

94,840

0.921

89,591

0.870

Combustion (Btu/gal)

32,190

30,060

24,820

Emission Source

P.V.b

D.V.c

Reformer

P.V.

D.V.

Reformer

P.V.

D.V.

Vent

Emissions (g/gal)

 NOx

0

0

2.94

0

0

1.36

0

0

0.28

 CO

0

0

0.50

0

0

0.46

0

1

0.09

 CO2

5

1

1,135

1

1

1,023

1

1

737

 CH4

2.9

0

0.04

0.29

0

0.04

0.29

0

0.01

 NMOGd

0.4

1.2

0.04

0.04

0.12

0.04

0.04

0.12

0.01

aNG = Natural gas.

bP.V. = Purge vent.

cD.V. = Distillation vent.

dNMOG = Non-methane organic gases.

54

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