4.8.2 Electricity Distribution
Electricity distribution results in losses through the power lines. Typical transmission losses range from 3.5 to 13.5 percent. This value depends on the specific application. Transmission losses are built into the power generation requirements discussed in Section 4.8.1. CEC’s electric power modeling runs took into account the average distribution losses for LADWP and SCE (around 9 and 7 percent, respectively).
Losses also occur during vehicle charging. The magnitude of these losses depend on the battery type and charging system. EV energy consumption is reported in terms kWh of electricity at the outlet; therefore the EV energy consumption includes charging losses. Actual energy consumption could vary with the type of EV charger and the state of battery charge.
Most facilities are currently being phased into RECLAIM, but are still subject to Regulation 11 or BACT, until they come into compliance with RECLAIM. Under RECLAIM, there are exemptions for municipal refuse fired facilities that are publicly-owned, landfill gas-fired and energy recovery facilities, and the cities of Burbank, Glendale, and Pasadena. The rest of the South Coast region will be subject to RECLAIM. Those facilities that are exempt from RECLAIM will still be subject to Regulation 11 rules or BACT.
4.9: Fuel Storage and Distribution
Marketing and distribution of fuels involve their storage, transport, and transfer to a vehicle. These steps are described as Phases 4 through 8 in Section 3. The storage and distribution of liquid fuels is similar and considered in Section 4.9.1. Section 4.9.2 considers emissions from gaseous fuels.
4.9.1 Liquid Fuel Storage and Distribution
Diesel, reformulated diesel, LPG, FTD, and methanol will be stored in bulk storage tanks, both at production facilities and at product distribution terminals. Emissions from marketing and distribution of fuels primarily consist of fugitive emissions, such as breathing losses, vapor transfer losses, and spills during fuel transfers.
Local Fuel Storage and Delivery — Liquid Fuels
This section describes the bulk storage and delivery of liquid fuels. Table 4-24 shows the emissions from bulk storage tanks based on the calculation technique in AP-42. The throughput is varied for current and future M100.
Calculated vapor emissions were used as the estimate for fuel product storage (production Phase 6). Fixed roof storage tanks are used for production facility storage for overseas methanol plants and presumably also FTD plants. The higher emission rates are reflected in Table 4-25. Production plant and terminal emissions for this study are shown in Table 4-25. Since these tanks represent a sizeable amount of emissions on an annual basis, vapor controls may be required. For Scenarios 3, a 90 percent reduction in emissions (reduction factor of 0.1) is assumed for methanol tanks in the