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Messinger

Messinger

For both LBW & NBW

‘Mothers' maintaining children's interests  supported 2- & 3½-yr skills 4½-yr cognitive and social independence

Directiveness supported children's early cognitive and responsiveness skills

but by 3½ yrs, high levels of this behavior had a negative influence on cognitive and social independence at 4½ yrs.

High levels of maintaining interests across these ages support later independence,

but directiveness needs to decrease in relation to children's increasing competencies.’

Landry, S. H., Smith, K. E., Swank, P. R., & Miller-Loncar, C. L. (2000). Early maternal and child influences on children's later independent cognitive and social functioning. Child Development, 71, 358-375.

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