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Trading Blocs: States, Firms, and Regions in the World Economy Kerry A. Chase http://www.press.umich.edu/titleDetailDesc.do?id=133506 The University of Michigan Press

302 Index

Electrical and Allied Manufacturers Association, 78–79 Electronic Data Processing PLC, 152n6 Electronic Industries Association (EIA), 122–23, 122, 250 electronics industry, 31, 44, 49, 187, 194; European, 73, 74, 152, 160, 175n42, 262–63; Japanese, 225, 237–40, 238, 250; NAFTA and, 29, 188, 206, 208; United States, 112, 122. See also com- puter industry Empire Economic Union, 79–80 Empire Industries Association, 69–70, 77, 79–80 Empire Producers Organization, 69–70, 79–80 Ernst, Dieter, 239n15, 240 escape clause, 108, 122–26, 130, 142, 216 ethylene production, 44, 147, 150 EUROFER, 161, 175 European Association of Consumer Elec- tronics Manufacturers (EACEM), 164, 175–76 European Coal and Steel Community, 144 European Community (EC), 3, 50, 143–68, 174, 179, 259–64; economies of scale in, 146–59, 162–72; formation of, 144–46; import competition in, 143–46, 148–49, 156, 167–68; Mexico and, 266; national market sizes in, 146–48, 147; nontariff barriers of, 166–68, 168, 175, 266–67; protection- ism and, 161–68, 164, 168. See also European Union European Electronic Component Manu- facturers Association (EECA), 165, 170 European Payments Union, 137 European Roundtable (ERT), 158–60, 259 European Union (EU), 143–44, 168–80, 260–64; economies of scale in, 168–72; enlargement of, 255; import competi- tion in, 156; industry lobbying for, 157–61, 174–75; Japan and, 262–63; protectionism and, 168–72; qualified

majority voting in, 177–80. See also European Community export-dependent industries, 47, 131, 167; British, 75–83; German, 93–98; Japanese, 59–63; United States, 110– 26, 131–32, 132, 262

“fabric forward” origin rule, 213 Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation, 196 Federation of British Industries (FBI), 77, 88 Fiat SpA, 150–53, 159–60, 163, 168, 174 fibers. See synthetic fibers Fielder, Nicola, 157 Finsider SpA, 150, 153, 160–61, 174 Firestone Tire and Rubber Company, 87 Flamm, Kenneth, 195 flexible manufacturing systems, 44, 224 Footwear Industries of America, 212 Ford Motor Company, 19, 29, 53, 87, 111; Canadian plants of, 134–35, 137–40, 191; European market and, 151, 153, 160–63, 164, 176–77, 180, 262; Japan and, 67, 245, 246, 264; NAFTA and, 198, 210, 265; RTAA and, 115, 117, 121, 122; Smoot-Hawley tariff and, 128 foreign direct investment (FDI), 32, 38–41, 47, 257, 259, 269; in Canada, 134–36, 205; in East Asia, 226–28, 234–37, 241, 247–48, 253–54; and economies of scale, 186, 189–94, 194; in Europe, 143, 153–54, 171–72, 241; in North America, 184, 241; and TRIMs, 34, 36, 38–40 Foreign Investment Review Agency (FIRA), 183, 190, 205 Frankel, Jeffrey, 5n3, 49 free trade areas, 144, 184, 222, 252, 254– 55, 267; ASEAN, 223, 235–37, 244; defined, 1n1; European, 163; GATT Article XXIV and, 3n2, 106, 108–9, 181, 251, 267–68; rules of origin and, 40n33. See also specific agreements, e.g., NAFTA

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