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# California Science Teachers Association In collaboration with the California Department of Education - page 18 / 50

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• 6.

Physics 1- Newton’s laws predict the motion of most objects.

• a.

Physics 1a- Students know how to solve problems that involve constant speed and average speed.

• b.

Physics 1b- Students know that when forces are balanced, no acceleration occurs; thus an object continues to move at a constant speed or stays at rest (Newton’s first law).

• c.

Physics 1c- Students know how to apply the law F = ma to solve one-dimensional motion problems that involve constant forces (Newton’s second law).

• d.

Physics 1d- Students know that when one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object always exerts a force of equal magnitude and in the opposite direction (Newton’s third law).

• e.

Physics 1e- Students know the relationship between the universal law of gravitation and the effect of gravity on an object at the surface of the Earth.

• f.

Physics 1g - Students know applying a force to an object perpendicular to the direction of its motion causes the object to change direction but not speed (e.g., Earth’s gravitational force causes a satellite in a circular orbit to change direction but not speed).

• g.

Physics 1h*- Students know Newton’s laws are not exact but provide good approximations unless an object is moving close to the speed of light or is small enough that quantum effects are important.

• h.

Physics 1i*- Students know how to solve problems in circular motion by using the formula for centripetal acceleration in the following form: a=v2/r.

• i.

Physics 1f- Students know the evidence for the dramatic effects that asteroid impacts have had in shaping the surface of planets and their moons and in mass extinction of life on Earth.

• B.

Unit Concept #2—The interaction of matter and energy results in a dynamic earth system. Energy affects Earth as a system; the uneven heating of Earth causes air movements, and oceans and the water cycle influence weather. Heat energy is transferred by radiation, conduction, and convection, and radiation from the sun is responsible for winds and ocean currents, which in turn influence weather and climate. Geologic and climatic changes are part of an evolving earth system.

• 1.

Earth 4- Energy enters the earth system primarily as solar radiation and eventually escapes as heat.

• a.

Earth 4b- Students know the fate of incoming solar radiation in terms of reflection, absorption, and photosynthesis.

• 2.

Earth 5- Heating of Earth’s surface and atmosphere by the sun drives convection within the atmosphere and oceans, producing winds and ocean currents.

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