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California Science Teachers Association In collaboration with the California Department of Education - page 21 / 50

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    • f.

      Chemistry 10e*- Students know how to identify the functional groups that form the basis of alcohols, ketones, ethers, amines, aldehydes, and organic acids.

      • i.

        Biology 1h- Students know most macromolecules (polysaccharides, nucleic acids, proteins, lipids) in cells and organisms are synthesized from a small collection of simple precursors.

        • (a)

          Biology 1a- Students know cells are enclosed within semi-permeable membranes that regulate their interaction with their surroundings.

        • (b)

          Biology 1e- Students know the role of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus in the secretion of proteins.

        • (c)

          Biology 1j*- Students know how eukaryotic cells are given shape and internal organization by a cytoskeleton or cell wall or both.

  • C.

    Unit Concept #3—The self-replicating property of DNA forms the bases for continuity and change in the reproduction of cells. Changes in DNA result in structural and functional alterations in cells, organisms and populations. DNA also serves as a template for the production of other molecules that are responsible for the structure and function of the cell. The processes of meiosis and fertilization determine the genotypes and diversity of offspring.

  • 1.

    Biology 4- Genes are a set of instructions encoded in the DNA sequence of each organism that specify the sequence of amino acids in proteins characteristic of that organism.

    • a.

      Biology 4a- Students know the general pathway by which ribosomes synthesize proteins, using tRNAs to translate genetic information in mRNA.

    • b.

      Biology 4b- Students know how to apply the genetic coding rules to predict the sequence of amino acids from a sequence of codons in RNA.

    • c.

      Biology 4d- Students know the central dogma of molecular biology outlines the flow of information from transcription of ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the nucleus to translation of proteins on ribosomes in the cytoplasm.

  • 2.

    Biology 2- Mutation and sexual reproduction lead to genetic variation in a population.

    • a.

      Biology 2a- Students know meiosis is an early step in sexual reproduction in which the pairs of chromosomes separate and segregate randomly during cell division to produce gametes containing one chromosome of each type.

    • b.

      Biology 2b- Students know only certain cells in a multicellular organism undergo meiosis.

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