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California Science Teachers Association In collaboration with the California Department of Education - page 31 / 50

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II.

Semester 2—Understanding universal laws will allow us to analyze processes of and changes in living systems. Semester two focuses on the relationship of the processes and changes found among living systems and the impact they make upon the Earth.

  • A.

    Unit Concept #1—Living systems must maintain homeostatic equilibrium and do so through the delicate balance of chemical processes.

    • 1.

      Chemistry 9b- Students know equilibrium is established when forward and reverse reaction rates are equal.

      • a.

        Chemistry 9c*- Students know how to write and calculate an equilibrium constant expression for a reaction.

      • b.

        Chemistry 9a- Students know how to use Le Chatelier’s principle to predict the effect of changes in concentration, temperature and pressure.

      • c.

        Chemistry 8d*- Students know the definition and role of activation energy in a chemical reaction.

      • d.

        Chemistry 5e*- Students know the Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowery, and Lewis acid-base definitions.

        • (i)

          Chemistry 5f*- Students know how to calculate pH from the hydrogen –ion concentrations.

        • (ii)

          Chemistry 5g*- Students know buffers stabilize pH in acid- base reactions.

  • 2.

    Biology 1b- Students know enzymes are proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions without altering the reaction equilibrium and the activities of enzymes depend on the temperature, ionic conditions, and the pH of the surroundings.

    • a.

      Biology 4e- Students know proteins can differ from one another in the number and sequence of amino acids.

    • b.

      Biology 4f*- Students know why proteins having different amino acid sequences typically have different shapes and chemical properties.

    • c.

      Biology 4c- Students know how mutations in the DNA sequence of a gene may or may not affect the expression of the gene or the sequence of amino acids in an encoded protein.

  • 3.

    Chemistry 8b- Students know how reaction rates depend on such factors as concentration, temperature, and pressure.

    • a.

      Chemistry 8a- Students know the rate of reaction is the decrease in concentration of reactants or the increase in concentration of products with time.

    • b.

      Chemistry 8c- Students know the role a catalyst plays in increasing the reaction rate.

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