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California Science Teachers Association In collaboration with the California Department of Education - page 32 / 50





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  • B.

    Unit Concept #2—Adaptations can be traced to cellular processes and to the genetic level. The study of genetics helps us to understand both micro and macroevolution.

    • 1.

      Biology 7d- Students know variation within a species increases the likelihood that at least some members of a species will survive under changed environmental conditions.

      • a.

        Biology 4d- Students know specialization of cells in multicellular organisms is usually due to different patterns of gene expression rather than to differences of the genes themselves.

        • (i)

          Biology 7b- Students know why alleles that are lethal in a homozygous individual may be carried in a heterozygote and thus maintained in a gene pool.

      • b.

        Biology 7c- Students know new mutations are constantly being generated in a gene pool.

      • c.

        Biology 7a- Students know why natural selection acts on the phenotype rather than the genotype of an organism.

  • 2.

    Biology 8c- Students know the effects of genetic drift on the diversity of organisms in a population.

    • a.

      Biology 7f*- Students know how to solve the Hardy-Weinberg equation to predict the frequency of genotypes in a population, given the frequency of phenotypes.

    • b.

      Biology 7e*- Students know the condition for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in a population and why these conditions are not likely to appear in nature.

  • 3.

    Biology 8d- Students know reproductive or geographic isolation affects speciation.

  • 4.

    Biology 8f*- Students know how to use comparative embryology, DNA, or protein sequence comparisons, and other independent sources of data to create a branching diagram (cladogram) that shows probable evolutionary relationships.

  • 5.

    Biology 8g*- Students know how several independent molecular clocks, calibrated against each other and combined with evidence from the fossil record, can help to estimate how long ago various groups of organisms diverged evolutionarily from one another.

  • C.

    Unit Concept #3—Genetic engineering is a method of artificially inducing change among living organisms.

    • 1.

      Biology 5c- Students know how genetic engineering (biotechnology) is

used to produce novel biomedical and agricultural products.


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