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California Science Teachers Association In collaboration with the California Department of Education - page 42 / 50

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GENETICS CALIFORNIA CONTENT STANDARDS: Grade 7 2. A typical cell of any organism contains genetic instructions that specify itstraits. Those traits may be modified by environmental influences. As a basis for understanding this concept: a. Students know the differences between the life cycles and reproduction methods of sexual and asexual organisms.

  • c.

    Students know an inherited trait can be determined by one or more genes.

  • d.

    Students know plant and animal cells contain many thousands of different

genes and typically have two copies of every gene. The two copies (or alleles) of the gene may or may not be identical, and one may be dominant in determining the phenotype while the other is recessive. e. Students know DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the genetic material of living organisms and is located in the chromosomes of each cell CALIFORNIA CONTENT STANDARDS: Biology

2. Mutation and sexual reproduction lead to genetic variation in a population. As a basis for understanding this concept: b. Students know only certain cells in a multicellular organism undergo meiosis. d. Students know new combinations of alleles may be generated in a zygote through the fusion of male and female gametes (fertilization). e. Students know why approximately half of an individual’s DNA sequence comes from each parent.

  • f.

    Students know the role of chromosomes in determining an individual's sex.

    • 3.

      A multicellular organism develops from a single zygote, and its

phenotype depends on its genotype, which is established at fertilization. As a basis for understanding this concept: a. Students know how to predict the probable outcome of phenotypes in a genetic cross from the genotypes of the parents and mode of inheritance (autosomal or Xlinked, dominant or recessive). 5. The genetic composition of cells can be altered by incorporation of exogenous DNA into the cells. As a basis for understanding this concept: a. Students know the general structures and functions of DNA, RNA, and protein.

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