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of this report available to me.

17. Title VI of the Social Security Act provided $8 million annually to assist states in the promotion of public health, which was as close as the national government came to influencing medical care.

18. It seems reasonable to infer that because the science of predicting industrial accidents was in its infancy in the 1920s, the most “successful” insurers were those who gained customers by offering low rates based on faulty actuarial assumptions, rates that later proved too low to cover claims by injured workers.

19. For a general analysis of the New Deal stressing the importance of institutional and interest group advocates, see Amenta 1998.

  • 20.

    The Board was renamed the Social Security Administration in 1946.

  • 21.

    This was a switch for both organizations: the AMA had endorsed disability insurance as recently

as 1947, and the Chamber of Commerce as recently as 1944 (Altmeyer 1966: 186).

22. The following discussion of the Black Lung program is based primarily on “Labor Legislation” 1973, Barth 1987, and U.S. Congress 1990: 1339-44.

23. Previous efforts to regulate coal mine safety in 1941 and 1952 were also precipitated by mining disasters (Lewis-Beck and Alford 1980).

24. Some readers may note that this case has several parallels to Downs’ (1972) discussion of the life- cycle of public problems.

  • 25.

    The major bills regulating mine safety before 1969 were passed in 1941, 1952, and 1966.

  • 26.

    The exceptions were Alabama and Pennsylvania, whose worker compensation programs began

covering black lung in the 1960s.

27. Legislators later made the Black Lung program permanent after states failed to make expected changes in their compensation laws.

28. Johnson’s decision not to seek re-election came in 1968, well after he had made occupational health and safety a top priority.

29. The Bipartisan Commission on Entitlements and Tax Reform, created in the mid-1990s, failed in part because it was asked to do too much.

30. In addition to the publications of the National Commission on State Workmen’s Compensation Laws, this section is based on material in Burton and Krueger 1986, Berkowitz 1987, Burton 1988, Larson 1988, and Shor 1990.


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