support. Among the innovative aspects, the improvements were spread through the Mahila Milan and NSDF networks and management of the facilities was embedded in the community organizations. Following small-scale successes, the approach was rolled out across the city of Pune and other states. A major challenge has been to maintain the emphasis on community organization as both the scale and the rate of expansion have increased, and government priorities compete with community priorities.
Source: Satterthwaite D, McGranahan G. (2006).
In Angola, this Community Management Model for Water (but not sanitation), was developed over a fifteen year partnership between Development Workshop and EPAL (Public Water company, EPAL-E.P.). A community management committee has decision-making authority to select the location and plan the standposts and water system. Since 1992, the goal has been for EPAL to construct community standposts as well as systems of community management, which can be expanded and replicated across the capital city, Luanda. Luanda Urban Poverty Programme (LUPP) has implemented the approach in several communes, 73 standposts were constructed supplying 74,000 people with water and over 4000metres of the principal water distribution pipeline were rehabilitated. Development Workshop has also been working to engage with the informal water vendors, in recognition of their role in service provision and its improvement.
Source: Cain A, Mulenga M (2009).
International Institute for Environment and Development – America Latina (IIED-AL)
The approach taken by IIED-AL started in an informal barrio (i.e. not formally approved) on the outskirts of Buenos Aires, in the late 1980s. The first major breakthrough came when the recently privatized water utility considered extending services to this informal barrio – going against standard operating procedures. This required agreement from local authorities, and involved residents organizing themselves to contribute labour. IIED-AL acted as an intermediary and catalyst to secure collaborative agreements between the residents, local government and the utility. Once the system was in place, most responsibilities shifted to the utility, although community structures continued to play an important role (i.e. it did not evolve directly into conventional household connections with household billing). The model was extended to service provision in other barrios and across the neighbouring municipality.