young women over the course of at least 6 years. Ted Bundy was considered to be a useful case for the purposes of this study because his history is used in case books (e.g., Meyer, 2006) and undergraduate textbooks (e.g., Oltmanns & Emery, 2004) to illustrate a personality disorder. Information for this vignette was drawn from biographical texts (Kendell, 1981; Rule, 2001).
Case 2: Earnst. During the 1930’s, Henry A. Murray and the staff at the Harvard Psychological Clinic conducted detailed and comprehensive assessments of several individuals over the course of many years. Perhaps the most well known of these case studies appeared in Murray’s classic 1938 text Explorations in Personality under the name of Earnst. The comprehensive assessment of Earnst included many instruments of the era, as well as a detailed life history. Earnst recalled a childhood in which he was frequently ill, coupled with several family tragedies including his mother’s untimely death and his father’s inability to work after an injury. In his adult life Earnst had trouble establishing relationships and was particularly distressed by his difficulty in attracting the attention of women, instead turning to an inner fantasy world constructed from storybook characters. During the time of his initial sessions with Murray, Earnst was devoting himself to pursuing a college education, but he was later forced to turn back from this goal due to financial and personal limitations, eventually pursuing a meager existence through a series of minimum-wage jobs. The description of Earnst for the case vignette was drawn from the summaries of the life history interviews conducted by Dr. Henry Murray (Murray, 1938).
Case 3: Madeline. The case of Madeline was drawn from the recently published text Paradigms of Personality Assessment, by Jerry Wiggins (2003). In this text, Wiggins asked