Chapter 1. Introduction and Background
Figure 1.3: The Seidenberg and McClelland (1989) Model: Triangle model with lay-
ers representing orthography, phonology, meaning and context. Activation spreads be-
tween layers via the hidden layer between them
the success of connectionist models, since every serious reading model should be able to simulate the two different forms of dyslexia.
(1989) model was one of the first successfull connectionist networks used to model
reading processes. The whole model (also called ’triangle model’) different layers (excluding the hidden layers) as shown in figure 1.3:
Orthography: The orthographic form the words.
Phonology: The phonological form of the words.
Meaning: The semantics of the words.
Context: The context in which the word appears.
Only the bottom part of the whole model, i.e. the mapping between orthography and phonology was implemented computationally. The model was implemented as a feed- forward connectionist networks, which did not include feedback from the phonological