Chapter 1. Introduction and Background
Figure 1.1: Basic Dual Route Model: Words can either be read using the lexicon or by
the rules mapping from orthography to phonology
form of words (or graphemes) is translated into the corresponding phonological form (or phonemes). However they differ considerably in their approach to the problem. First, in the next section, the Dual Route model will be briefly reviewed in order to set the connectionist models into context. After that, the next section will present a review of current connectionist models and their applications.
The Dual-Route model is the more traditional model of reading(Coltheart et al., 1993; Weekes and Coltheart, 1996). The model relies on the assumption that words are stored in a lexicon. According to the model, there are two such lexicons, an orthographic one which stores the orthographic forms of all the words known and a phonological one, which stores the phonological forms. The name of this model comes from the assumption that there are two distinct routes by which words can be recognised and read out aloud. The first of these routes, called the lexical route makes use of the lexicons to read words. If a word is read, its orthographic form is looked up in the orthographic lexicon and if a matching word is found, this is used to look up how to