The proposals put forward here thus provide a methodology for action in an urban environment, without overestimating the scope of this type of action in projects aimed at eradicating poverty, i.e. at the complex transformation of societies and of their reproduction mechanisms.
V.2. The general framework of action On the basis of evaluation of the Cities Project and the accumulated experience of development projects in an urban environment it is possible to identify the types of actors present in most contexts. They include 1) local organizations (neighbourhood associations, women’s groups, community schools, dispensaries, voluntary-sector restaurants, etc.); 2) the State (understood as the various levels of government and the system of public institutions); 3) development NGOs; 4) international bodies (bilateral co-operation agencies, United Nations agencies and credit organizations, co-operation agencies and funding agencies). Any development project must draw up intervention strategies in the context of the power relationships within this system of actors. Each national framework has its own pattern of actors and inter-actor relationships. We recommend that this distinctive pattern of actors and relationships be taken as the general framework of policies to fight poverty in an urban environment.
General action framework for policies to fight poverty in an urban environment
Local support network
Development NGO (locally based)
Local government – Municipality
Public institutions – STATE
Context extending to the international level Economics – politics – information
The diagram shows the various types of actors (in the white bubbles), their positions and their relationships. Inside the main State bubble is a Local Government bubble (special link with local organizations). The State bubble also includes (in view of the general significance of the word State) ministries and public institutions, as well as the standards resulting from democratic action.